AQA Psychology- Unit 3

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1. What did Ennis find?

  • Men had higher cortisol levels during times of stress compared to women, potentially due to them not tending and befriending as much as women
  • Neanderthal's skeletons were analysed and it was found they showed no division of labour which is why they died out
  • Lonley hearts ads were analysed and it was found that mate choice was consistent across cultures
  • 10,000 ppts, 37 cultures, found mate choice was consistent across cultures
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2. What did the Martin and Little resarch find?

  • Kids under 4 showed no gender constancy but strong sterotypes, suggesting Kohlberg's theory is wrong and the gender schema theory is right
  • Gender schema and gender constancy are simply different stages
  • Kids under the age of 6 recalled more consistent pictures than gender inconsistent pictures
  • Schemas are important shown by children aged 4-9 given toys labelled either girl or boy toys and children payed most intention to their in-group

3. What did Swaab find?

  • 14 (XY) males with cloacal extrophy were assigned females at birth but despite this, all were mascualine and 8/14 reversed to male
  • The size of the SDN is 2x larger in males than females and in MtF transsexuals had the SDN size of a woman
  • A case study of a boy who has his penis burn't off and was converted into a female, however he later returned to male
  • Testosterone was injected into rats and the girl babies born were both physically and mentally mascualine

4. What did Thompson et al find?

  • 2 years olds were 70% correct in identifying gender compared to 90% of 3 year olds, showing improvement with age
  • That the ages Kohlberg proposed are incorrect
  • Children under 5 identified a doll as a girl depite it having genitals on show
  • Only at 3-4 do children realise gender is constant over time and those who answered correctly showed greatest interest in same sex models

5. What are the 4 studies used to evaluate the gender schema theory

  • Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Walster et al, Stangor and Rubie
  • Martin and Little, Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie
  • Martin and Little, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie, Martin and Martin
  • Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie, Ennis et al

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