AQA Psychology- Unit 3

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1. What did Slaby and Frey find?

  • That the ages Kohlberg proposed are incorrect
  • Only at 3-4 do children realise gender is constant over time and those who answered correctly showed greatest interest in same sex models
  • Children under 5 identified a doll as a girl depite it having genitals on show
  • 2 years olds were 70% correct in identifying gender compared to 90% of 3 year olds, showing improvement with age
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2. What did the Martin and Little resarch find?

  • Gender schema and gender constancy are simply different stages
  • Kids under the age of 6 recalled more consistent pictures than gender inconsistent pictures
  • Kids under 4 showed no gender constancy but strong sterotypes, suggesting Kohlberg's theory is wrong and the gender schema theory is right
  • Schemas are important shown by children aged 4-9 given toys labelled either girl or boy toys and children payed most intention to their in-group

3. What did Dunbar and Waynforth find?

  • Neanderthal's skeletons were analysed and it was found they showed no division of labour which is why they died out
  • Lonley hearts ads were analysed and it was found that mate choice was consistent across cultures
  • 10,000 ppts, 37 cultures, found mate choice was consistent across cultures
  • Men had higher cortisol levels during times of stress compared to women, potentially due to them not tending and befriending as much as women

4. What did Mead's research suggest?

  • 37 cultures, showing similarities in mate preferences, suggesting that gender is innate
  • Cultural differences: Differences in agression found between the Arapesh, Mundugumor and Tchumbuli tribes
  • 2800 students, 30 countries, asked to say whether each of 300 adjectives were female or male sterotypes, and consistency was found across all countries
  • Repetition of Buss' study to find again that gender is innate

5. What are the 3 studies used to evaluate the biosocial explanations of gender dysphoria?

  • Chung et al, Zucker et al, Coate et al
  • Chung and Coate, Walster and Walster
  • Cole, Miller et al, Zucker et al
  • Chung et al, Zucker et al, Walster et al


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