1. What did Ennis find?
- Men had higher cortisol levels during times of stress compared to women, potentially due to them not tending and befriending as much as women
- Neanderthal's skeletons were analysed and it was found they showed no division of labour which is why they died out
- Lonley hearts ads were analysed and it was found that mate choice was consistent across cultures
- 10,000 ppts, 37 cultures, found mate choice was consistent across cultures
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2. What did the Martin and Little resarch find?
- Kids under 4 showed no gender constancy but strong sterotypes, suggesting Kohlberg's theory is wrong and the gender schema theory is right
- Gender schema and gender constancy are simply different stages
- Kids under the age of 6 recalled more consistent pictures than gender inconsistent pictures
- Schemas are important shown by children aged 4-9 given toys labelled either girl or boy toys and children payed most intention to their in-group
3. What did Swaab find?
- 14 (XY) males with cloacal extrophy were assigned females at birth but despite this, all were mascualine and 8/14 reversed to male
- The size of the SDN is 2x larger in males than females and in MtF transsexuals had the SDN size of a woman
- A case study of a boy who has his penis burn't off and was converted into a female, however he later returned to male
- Testosterone was injected into rats and the girl babies born were both physically and mentally mascualine
4. What did Thompson et al find?
- 2 years olds were 70% correct in identifying gender compared to 90% of 3 year olds, showing improvement with age
- That the ages Kohlberg proposed are incorrect
- Children under 5 identified a doll as a girl depite it having genitals on show
- Only at 3-4 do children realise gender is constant over time and those who answered correctly showed greatest interest in same sex models
5. What are the 4 studies used to evaluate the gender schema theory
- Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Walster et al, Stangor and Rubie
- Martin and Little, Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie
- Martin and Little, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie, Martin and Martin
- Martin and Halverson, Brabard et al, Stangor and Rubie, Ennis et al