AQA Psychology- Unit 3

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1. What are the 3 studies used to evaluate the biosocial explanations of gender dysphoria?

  • Chung and Coate, Walster and Walster
  • Chung et al, Zucker et al, Coate et al
  • Chung et al, Zucker et al, Walster et al
  • Cole, Miller et al, Zucker et al
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2. What studies are used to evaluate the role of genes/hormones on gender development?

  • Swaag, Diamond, Little Hans, Reiner and Gearhart
  • Reiner and Gearhart, David Riemer, Little Hans
  • Reiner and Gearhart, David Riemer, Diamond, Swaab
  • Little Albert, David Riemer, Diamond, Swaab

3. What did Thompson et al find?

  • That the ages Kohlberg proposed are incorrect
  • 2 years olds were 70% correct in identifying gender compared to 90% of 3 year olds, showing improvement with age
  • Only at 3-4 do children realise gender is constant over time and those who answered correctly showed greatest interest in same sex models
  • Children under 5 identified a doll as a girl depite it having genitals on show

4. What did Swaab find?

  • A case study of a boy who has his penis burn't off and was converted into a female, however he later returned to male
  • 14 (XY) males with cloacal extrophy were assigned females at birth but despite this, all were mascualine and 8/14 reversed to male
  • The size of the SDN is 2x larger in males than females and in MtF transsexuals had the SDN size of a woman
  • Testosterone was injected into rats and the girl babies born were both physically and mentally mascualine

5. What did the Stangor and Rubie research find?

  • Gender schema and gender constancy are simply different stages
  • Kids under 4 showed no gender constancy but strong sterotypes, suggesting Kohlberg's theory is wrong and the gender schema theory is right
  • Kids under the age of 6 recalled more consistent pictures than gender inconsistent pictures
  • Schemas are important shown by children aged 4-9 given toys labelled either girl or boy toys and children payed most intention to their in-group


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