1. What did Slaby and Frey find?
- That the ages Kohlberg proposed are incorrect
- Only at 3-4 do children realise gender is constant over time and those who answered correctly showed greatest interest in same sex models
- Children under 5 identified a doll as a girl depite it having genitals on show
- 2 years olds were 70% correct in identifying gender compared to 90% of 3 year olds, showing improvement with age
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2. What did the Martin and Little resarch find?
- Gender schema and gender constancy are simply different stages
- Kids under the age of 6 recalled more consistent pictures than gender inconsistent pictures
- Kids under 4 showed no gender constancy but strong sterotypes, suggesting Kohlberg's theory is wrong and the gender schema theory is right
- Schemas are important shown by children aged 4-9 given toys labelled either girl or boy toys and children payed most intention to their in-group
3. What did Dunbar and Waynforth find?
- Neanderthal's skeletons were analysed and it was found they showed no division of labour which is why they died out
- Lonley hearts ads were analysed and it was found that mate choice was consistent across cultures
- 10,000 ppts, 37 cultures, found mate choice was consistent across cultures
- Men had higher cortisol levels during times of stress compared to women, potentially due to them not tending and befriending as much as women
4. What did Mead's research suggest?
- 37 cultures, showing similarities in mate preferences, suggesting that gender is innate
- Cultural differences: Differences in agression found between the Arapesh, Mundugumor and Tchumbuli tribes
- 2800 students, 30 countries, asked to say whether each of 300 adjectives were female or male sterotypes, and consistency was found across all countries
- Repetition of Buss' study to find again that gender is innate
5. What are the 3 studies used to evaluate the biosocial explanations of gender dysphoria?
- Chung et al, Zucker et al, Coate et al
- Chung and Coate, Walster and Walster
- Cole, Miller et al, Zucker et al
- Chung et al, Zucker et al, Walster et al