Approaches in Psychology

Studying the structure of the human mind and thoughts and breaking them down into basic elements.
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A method of data collection which involves observing and describing our inner mental state. Introspection allows us to report our inner world of thought in terms of intensity, duration and quality.
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It means that knowledge and abilities come from experience and observation rather than being born with .
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The scientific process ( THE HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE model)
1. observation 2. theory 3. hypothesis 4. results (which are analysed whether the hypothesis is supported or not)
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Features of science (F.R.O.G.S.)
Falisifiable, Replicable, Objective, General laws, Systematic
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All theories and researches must be capable of being disproved, if they're not it's unfalsifiable and not scientific.
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This is a characteristic of research where repeating the experiment will result in the same findings. This can be achieved by using standardized procedures and instructions.
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This is where researchers do not let any preconceived ideas, biases or expectations influence the experiment. This is achieved by studying measurable and observable concepts.
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General laws
Using evidence to develop basic generalizable principles about human behaviour that apply to all individuals.
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Evidence or recordings are carried out in a controlled orderly manner using direct observations.
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Strength of Wilhelm Wundt's work
Structuralism and Introspection led to some useful general laws. Wundt's work has ultimately helped psychology become recognised
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Weaknesses of Wundt's work
1.Introspection can be highly subjective, lack of numerical data 2.Introspection can lack accuracy/validity. Low ecological validity
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I.Four parts of the biological approach
1.Evolution 2. Neuroanatomy 3. Neurochemistry 4.Genes
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1. Evolution and Behaviour: Definition of evolution
The gradual change within a species of several generations in response to environmental changes
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Natural selection
The process where inherited characteristics that enhance chance of survival will be passed on to the next generation
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Refers to a behaviour or a trait that increases the chance of survival and boost reproductive success
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Survival of the fittest
Only those most suited to the environment who possess certain characteristics will survive and be able to reproduce
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2.Genes and Behaviour: definition of genotype
A unique gene, which is the genetic constitution of an individual
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The interaction between the environment and the inherited characteristics
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Identical and non-identical twins
Identical-monozygotic Non-identical - dizygotic
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Tries to map the relationship between different areas of the brain and their functions.
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4. Neurochemistry
Concerns all of the chemical processes that take place in the brain
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They are chemical messengers that are released from the neurons.
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Functions of neurotransmitters
Communicating with each other and relaying messages to different areas
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Strengths of Biological approach
1.It has made huge contributions to help society including accessible ways to treat mental health problems, it's benefitted society. 2.It's extremely scientific:uses both falsifiable and objective measures. 3. Evidence:HM study
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Weaknesses of the Biological approach
1. A lot of research and knowledge gained from the biological approach has taken place on non-human animals/evolutionary discontinuity 2. Researches like HM has major limitations, we cannot generalise the results to everyone
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II. Learning approach
Highly scientifc, and fully measurable
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Three key ways in which we learn behaviour
Consequences, Imitation, Association
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Classical conditioning
Association. Pavlov's experiment with dog and the saliva/
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If Pavlov rang the bell and stopped bringing food the salivation would stop
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Spontaneous recovery
If after a good period of time the food reappeared the response would get back immediately
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If you're learned to associate rabbits with fear you are only afraid of rabbits and nothing else
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You associate rabbits with fear, but it then becomes generalised onto similar things e.g. guinea pigs
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One trial learning
Food poisoning. When conditioning occurs immediately after one trial only
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Operant Conditioning
Consequences. Skinner's theory: behaviour is determined by the consequences of the past behaviour
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Positive reinforcement
Giving something pleasant to increase the frequency of the behaviour
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Negative reinforcement
Increasing the frequency of behaviour by using consequences that are pleasant when they stop.Reinforcing by taking away something it didn't like
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Decreasing the frequency of behaviour by using consequences that are unpleasant when they happen
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Primary reinforces
Things that fulfill basic needs
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Secondary reinforces
Material stuff such as money, clothes
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Social Learning Theory
Imitation. We learn through observing different types of role models
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Live models
parents, older siblings
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Verbal instructional model
driving instructor
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Symbolic model
celebrities, characters
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When we copy the behaviour of our chosen role model
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People who we identify with, those who we copy
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When you model yourself onto them
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Vicarious reinforcement
This happens when we see role models rewarded for behaving a certaiin way, encouraging us to reproduce that behaviour to get the same rewards
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Vicarious punishment
Learning by the punishment of your role model gets.A
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Strengths of the learning approach
1.It's made major contributions to help society eg. ways to treat mental helth problems/ unlearning phobias- 91% effective
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Strengths of the learning approach
2. It is extremely scientific. This approach uses both objective and falsifiable methods. It only measures behaviour nothing else (Bandura's bobo doll experiment)
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Strengths of the learning approach
There is a lot of evidence to support htis approach: Little Albertexperiment showed how behaviour can be shaped through CC.
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Weaknesses of the learning approach
It is accused of being environmental deterministic:Skinner argues that everything we do is the sum of consequences, and it ignores genetics.
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Weakness of the learing approach
Animal research is criticised as being evolutionary discontinuity which means that animals and humans have qualitative differences so the findings cannot be generalised onto humans
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III. Cognitive approach
Modern approach, main assumption is that all behaviour is driven by thought processes
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Information processing approach
In a linear system, the information flows through the brain in a way that seems logical: input-process-output
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how we develop our knowledge about everything. Schemas are mental structures which contain knowledge, they help us make sense of the world
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A method of data collection which involves observing and describing our inner mental state. Introspection allows us to report our inner world of thought in terms of intensity, duration and quality.

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The scientific process ( THE HYPOTHETICO-DEDUCTIVE model)


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Features of science (F.R.O.G.S.)


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