Personality and Intelligence revision

  • Created by: lewis
  • Created on: 05-04-16 22:39
The Big Five of Personality (trait approach):
openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness & neuroticism. universal.
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Trait approach:
approaches which explain character traits with regard to individual features of one's personality (eg five factor model / big five)
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Emotional Intelligence:
the ability to understand your own emotions and those of people around you.
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Dispositional approach:
personality is consistent and unchanging regardless of context
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Situational approach:
personality or behaviours determined by situational factors.
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Idiographic approach to examine personality traits:
single, individual, unique. every human being is like no other.
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Nomothetic approach to examine personality traits:
universal, every human being is like some other.
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Nomothetic approach most important traits - lexical:
major dimensions of personality can be derived form the total number of descriptors in any language system (Allport and Odbert, 1936) & big five.
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Nomothetic approach most important traits - statistical:
factor analysis & five factor model.
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A historical perspective of intelligence. Theory first:
galton. some people have inherited 'mental constitutions' that make them more fit for thinking.
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A historical perspective of intelligence. Measurement first:
binet. mental abilities develop with age, rate of development is fairly consistent overtime. the intelligence testing industry (objective tests).
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Factor analysis:
data reduction technique where relationships between a number of variables is reduced to a relationship among fewer underlying factors.
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Spearman's G Factor:
intelligence as a general mental capacity. a single factor underlies individual differences in performance.
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Thurstone's primary mental abilities:
intelligence as specific abilities. mental performance depend on seven distant abilities. 'g' results from, rather than underlies, these mental abilities. guildford (1977) proposed over 100 distinct mental abilities.
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G =
general ability/intelligence.
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G (general ability) comprises two related, but distinct components:
crystallised intelligence (gf) & fluid intelligence (gc)
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Crystallised intelligence (use of existing knowledge):
information processing, depends on CNS functioning, biological and declines over life span, non verbal tests (r. cattell)
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Fluid intelligence (solving new problems):
acquire retain and organise information, depend on experience, environmental, verbal tests (r. cattell)
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Hot/Social intelligence:
inter and intra-personal skills, success in social interactions.
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Eysenck's (1985) representation of 3 different conceptions of intelligence:
BIOLOGICAL intelligence (genetics, biochemistry), PSYCHOMETRIC intelligence (IQ > upbringing, education, etc) predict SOCIAL intelligence (health, personality, drinking habits, experience)
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Characteristics of an emotionally intelligence person (Chamorro, 2012):
adaptable, able to percieve and express emotions effectively, empathetic, high esteem, manage stress well.
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Salovey and Mayer's branch model of emotional intelligence (MSCEIT):
first clear theory of EQ, EQ is independent and more important than IQ in real-life settings. An ability model.
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4 branches of Salovey and Mayers model on emotional intelligence:
1) perceiving emotions 2) using emotions to facilitate thought 3) understanding emotions 4) managing emotions
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Petride's model on emotional intelligence:
a trait model, subjective nature / questions of emotional experience.
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Conceptual divide between ability and trait models of emotional intelligence:
trait models subjective, self report, ability models base on performance and are objective.
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Hunter & Hunter found what on intelligence and job performance:
g (intelligence) predicts training performance, job performance and lifetime productivity. large metal scale analysis.
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Advantages of Psychological Testing in the workplace:
compare applicants, development, scientific (reliability & validity), objective.
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Disadvantages of Psychological Testing in the workplace:
some tests invalid, do they measure what is required? unfair and biased( socially desirable), practice and coaching (time and cost).
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Hogan & Hogan (2005) on leadership:
65-75% of employees in any given organisation reported that the worst aspect of their job was their immediateboss.
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Leadership definition (Hogan & Kaiser):
the ability to build and maintain a group that performs well relative to its competition.
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Theories of leadership, trait approaches:
certain individual differences are common to all effective leaders, explains why some people become leaders.
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Locke (1997) trait theory on leadership (CMA):
cognitive ability (intelligence), motivation and values (ambition) and attitudes towards employees (respect for ability)
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Judge et al (2004) on intelligence and leadership:
meta analysis 151 studies, student and work samples and found E and C (big five) had stronger correlations with leadership. (but what other traits may they posses?)
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Kerr et al (2005) supervisor and emotional intelligence:
emotional intelligence scores correlated with employee's ratings of effectiveness. specifically percieving and using emotions.
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Leadership style (behavioural theory):
a stable patterm of behaviours adopted by leaders that dertermines their relationship with and influence over group members.
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Charasmatic leadership style:
followers are loyal and inspired, innocative, good communication, raises follower's esteem and efficacy (eg Nelson Mandela)
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Transformational leadership style:
form of charasmatic leadership, communicates vision to produce change in follower's values, expectations and motivations to inspire them to sacrifice personal interests for group interests.
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Transactional leadership style:
exchanging rewards (eg money for work) for compliance.
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Gardner and Stough (2002) tranformational leadership study:
110 high level managers, perceived EI scores correlated with transformational leadfership style and found Extraversion and Agreeableness were important predictors for leadership effectieness.
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Costs of poor mental health in the workplace:
£30.3 billion in lost economic output (Centre for Mental Health)
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The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) factors that lead to stress in the workplace:
support, relationships, CHANGE, demands
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Emperical finding on personality disorders in the workplace (Broadmoore):
senior managers and CEOs had higher Histronic PD scores on average compared to Broadmoor psychiatric patients.
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Hogan Development Survey (1997):
used with managers to identidy the personality characteristics that pose career limitations (selection, development)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Trait approach:


approaches which explain character traits with regard to individual features of one's personality (eg five factor model / big five)

Card 3


Emotional Intelligence:


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Card 4


Dispositional approach:


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Situational approach:


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