Psychology Revision

  • Created by: Chlxek
  • Created on: 03-01-21 16:22
View mindmap
  • Issues & Debates:
    • Gender Bias:
      • Alpha Bias
        • Exaggerates the differences between the sexes e.g. the sociobiological theory
      • Beta Bias
        • Minimises the differences between the sexes e.g. fight-flight theory
      • Universality
        • Bias may be  an unavoidable part of the research process
      • Androcentrism
        • Normal behaviour is judged from the male standards e.g. female aggression is explained by PMS
          • Premenstrual syndrome
      • Evaluation
        • Feminist Psychology
          • Worrell proposes that research should be collaborative & in context
        • Essentialism
          • Gender differences presented as 'fixed' in nature, often politically motivated
        • Implication of Gender Bias:
          • May validate stereotypes & discrimination e.g. research into PMS
        • Sexism within the research progress
          • Research questions oriented to male concerns, preference for results showing gender differences
            • Lab experiment disadvantages women
        • Reflexivity
          • Being  'up-front' about one's biases & preconceptions can reduce gender bias (Dambrin & Lambert)
    • Cultural Bias:
      • Universality
        • Mainstream psychology has generally ignored the cultural differences
      • Cultural Relativism
        • Berry has suggested that psychology has taken an etic approach & should be more emic
          • (Acknowledge cultural relativism)
      • Ethnocentrism
        • When one's culture is seen as the 'norm' or 'standard' e.g. Ainsworth's ideal attachment type
      • Evaluation
        • Challenging implicit assumptions
          • Researcher's own cultural views can be challenge. Taken for granted assumptions may not be universal
        • Operationalisation of variables
          • Some behaviours may not be expressed in the same way e.g. displays of aggression may be culturally relative
        • Individual - Collectivism:
          • Distinction may be too simple. May no longer apply; Takano & Osaka found no evidence
        • Cultural Relativism VS Universality:
          • It shouldn't be assumed that all human behaviours are culturally specific
            • There are some universals; such as aspects of attachment & the facial expression of emotion.
        • Unfamiliarity with research tradition:
          • Demand characteristics are more likely in an unfamiliar situation


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Issues and debates resources »