Alternative Research Methods

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Bickman - uniform
Approached people on city street and asked them to carry out small, inconvenient tasks. Milkman, civilian or guard. Proves symbols of authority (guard's uniform) can affect obedience levels. Does not show destructive behaviour. E/VALID.
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Hofling - nurses
22 nurses gave drug to patients. 21 attempted it. Showed ecological validity of M. Destructive behaviour. Did not know they were harming but it did support Milgram.
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Perrin & Spencer - engineering
Contradicts - same ex. with engineering students. 0% conformity but they were criticized for using engineering students who work with lines daily so were more confident.
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Jenness - beans in a jar
Supports - guessed no. then they discussed in groups and guessed again. Individual opinion can be influenced by the opinion of others but criticized as no obvious answer.
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Cohen - cold
Lab ex- completed SRRS b4 nasal drops. More susceptible to cold if they had higher TLCU. Supports - more stress = illness. Stress relates to illness and weakens immune system. Ignores chronic stress eg caring for elderly relatives etc.
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Delongis - daily hassles
Contradicts - Married couples get ill from daily hassles. Rahe didn't consider these. Ignores chronic stress eg caring for elderly relatives etc.
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Mineka & Cook - monkeys
Supports - Monkey vid of other monkeys being scared of toys and snakes. Other monkeys only showed fear towards snake. Monkeys are innately programmed to fear certain animal characteristics possessed by snakes and crocs.
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Bristowe - spiders
Contradicts - Spiders eaten as delicacy, released at weddings etc. People do not fear spiders worldwide and it is not innate and is learnt through culture.
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Schwartz - heart rate
Supports - 5 mnth old didn't show drop rate but 9 mnth old did. Infants do not have depth perception from birth.
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Sorce - facial expression
Contradicts - mother smiled/acted scared and baby moved or didn't accordingly. Suggests depth perception isn't innate but is learned via socialisation. Supports empiricist view.
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Wurn - control and illness
Supports - 1,000 Germans aged 40-85 for 6 years. Negative correlation in sense of control and illness. More control, less ill you will be. Findings generalised to other countries. Larger sample and age range to overcome limitations of L&R.
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Langer & Rodin - 18 months
Supports - 15% RIG died v 30% CG group. Initially 25%. Develops original study. Inc control and responsibility has long term benefits. Other explanations - criticism
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Clarke & Hatfield - "would you have sex with me?"
Supports - Men and women approached strangers for sex. 75% of males agreed to have sex. Females choosier on who they will have sex with.
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Waynforth & Dunbar - Lonely Hearts
Supports - 42% of males sought physically attractive woman and 22% of females did. Reproductive value and fertility. Males value youth and fertility in a mate as females limited in fertility.
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Slater - emergency rooms
Supports - she was prescribed medication. Shows misdiagnosis and another type 2 error however does contradict as she was not placed in a hospital ward.
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World Health Organisation - international psychiatric diagnosis
Supports - 7 countries agreed on diagnosis but USA and USSR did not agree. US based psychiatrists aren't accurate in their diagnosis of mental abnormality, particularly schizophrenia. Also shows Rosenham wrong to generalise to other countries.
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Card 2

Front

22 nurses gave drug to patients. 21 attempted it. Showed ecological validity of M. Destructive behaviour. Did not know they were harming but it did support Milgram.

Back

Hofling - nurses

Card 3

Front

Contradicts - same ex. with engineering students. 0% conformity but they were criticized for using engineering students who work with lines daily so were more confident.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Supports - guessed no. then they discussed in groups and guessed again. Individual opinion can be influenced by the opinion of others but criticized as no obvious answer.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Lab ex- completed SRRS b4 nasal drops. More susceptible to cold if they had higher TLCU. Supports - more stress = illness. Stress relates to illness and weakens immune system. Ignores chronic stress eg caring for elderly relatives etc.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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