A2 Sports Psychology Chapter 6

HideShow resource information
Name the 4 C's that need to be trained in order to achieve success
Ccommitment, confidence, control, concentration
1 of 63
List the benefits of goal setting
Motivates performer, performer is more organised and efficient, performer can plan training and performance programmes, performer focuses on key elements of performance, helps to reduce anxiety and control arousal, builds self confidence
2 of 63
State what objective goals are and give an example
Goals that are specific & measurable. EG - reach level 11.2 on the bleep test
3 of 63
State what subjective goals are and give an example
General statements, based on opinion. EG - 'I think she played well'
4 of 63
Define what an outcome goal is and give an example
Concerned with an end product. Can be externally controlled as luck and opposition can influence the outcome. EG – winning a game of football, winning a 100m race
5 of 63
Define what a performance goal is and give an example
Relate directly to the achievement of an individual. They are measurable and can be assessed via time keeping. EG – achieving a PB in swimming
6 of 63
Define what a process goal is and give an example
Centred on the technical elements that underpin a performance. These tend to be internally controlled. EG – improving a weak backhand stroke in tennis
7 of 63
Define what a short term goal is and give an example
Building blocks that need to be consistently achieved to reach long term goals. EG to score a goal in my next game
8 of 63
Define what a long term goal is and give an example
Ccan only be achieved over time through the use of short term goals and objectives. EG - to be the leading goal scorer in my team by the end of the season
9 of 63
What does the 'S' in SMARTER stand for?
Specific – to the athlete, the sport & specific in general. ‘Playing well in sport’ is not specific enough
10 of 63
What does the 'M' in SMARTER stand for?
Measurable – goals need to be assessed through formal processes to build confidence and motivation
11 of 63
What does the 'A' in SMARTER stand for?
Agreed – discussed and agreed with others. A coach may set you a more realistic target than other individuals might do. Team players must all agree with the plan
12 of 63
What does the 'R' in SMARTER stand for?
Realistic – genuine and not beyond the scope or ability level of performer. Equally, they must be realistic enough to stretch and challenge and not too easy
13 of 63
What does the 'T' in SMARTER stand for?
Time bound – goals should reflect short term and long term objectives of the athlete. Why is setting time scales is sensible?
14 of 63
What does the 'E' in SMARTER stand for?
Exciting – goals need to provide the performer with a stimulus to progress and achieve. Otherwise, performers may become demotivated and under achieve
15 of 63
What does the 'R' in SMARTER stand for?
Recorded – by recording goals, athletes can see a time plan, and be able to evaluate progress. This should therefore motivate them.
16 of 63
What are the 7 steps to successful goal setting?
1 Plan&set goals&agree to the commitment 2 Put realistic strategies into place 3 Evaluate regularly&reward success 4 seek help of a mentor 5 don’t let a setback demotivate you – have a plan B 6 never lose sight of LTgoal 7 add more steps if needed
17 of 63
List the factors that can hinder successful goal setting
Unrealistic&unmanageable, too many goals are set, goals are beyond your control, inappropriate time frame, no flexibility when goals should be changed, evaluation is too generalised, outcome goals have taken over
18 of 63
What is a psychologoical skills trianing programme?
‘systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills'
19 of 63
What is performance profiling and what does it do?
Used to look at your psychological skills and assess which ones are strengths and weaknesses. A plan would then be put into place to help improve your performance.
20 of 63
List key psychological skills needed in sport & for each one state why it is needed in a sport of your choice
Concentration, imagery, determination, consistent effort, stress managament, motivation, courage, self talk, leadership, confidence, communication, mental preparation
21 of 63
List some of the issues of performance profiling
Lack of time, lack of sports specific knowledge, failure to follow up and review programme, lack of belief by athlete that programme will work
22 of 63
Define motivation
'The internal mechanisms and external stimuli that arouse and direct our behaviour’ – the reason or reasons that we do or do not want to do something.
23 of 63
Describe intrinsic motivation & give examples
'The internal drives to take part in sport and strive for success' INTANGIBLE(EMOTIONAL)- Intrinsic feelings include: satisfaction, joy, pride, pleasure, excitement. EG?
24 of 63
Describe extrinsic motivation & give examples
'Secondary motivation that comes from other people' - (such as fans, coaches, friends, teammates)
25 of 63
Identify & describe the 2 different types of extrinsic motivation, giving examples of each
Intangible (emotional) motivation - praise from teammates & coach for good performance. Tangible motivation such as trophies & money.
26 of 63
Define acheivement motivation
‘a fundamental drive to succeed or persist with a task’
27 of 63
Describe a 'NACH' personality type & list characteristics
Nach = need to acheive - take risks, perform better when evaluated, like a challenge, not troubled by fear of failure, seek success and pride through high ranking victories
28 of 63
Describe a 'NAF' personality type & list characteristics
Naf = need to avoid failure - avoid risks/take easy option, perform worse whne evaluated, dislike challenge, often concede defeat early & give up after failure, have a drive to avoid humiliation
29 of 63
What is Goal Perspective Theory?
Suggests 2 reasons we are motivated in sport - task orientated & ego orientated. Give EGs of each
30 of 63
What is attribution theory?
‘An approach that attempts to categorise the external and internal reasons we give for winning and losing.’
31 of 63
In attribution theory, what are the 2 things that the performer can control internally?
Internal (under the control of the performer) - ABILITY & EFFORT
32 of 63
In attribution theory, what are the 2 things that the performer cannot control internally?
External (beyond the control of the performer) - LUCK & TASK DIFFICULTY
33 of 63
In attribution theory, what are the 2 things that cannot change in the short term?
Stable (does not change in short term&may alter very little over time) ABILITY & TASK DIFFICULTY
34 of 63
In attribution theory, what are the 2 things that can change in the short term?
Unstable (can change within the ST and even in one performance) - LUCK & EFFORT
35 of 63
What do NAF performers attribute their success & failure to?
Success - external(I won because i was lucky) & failure - internal (I lost because i am not good enough).
36 of 63
What do NACH performers attribute their success & failure to?
Success - internal(I won because i was better than my opponent) & failure - external(I lost because i was unlucky).
37 of 63
Define what is meant by the term 'learned helplesness' & which performers are more likely to experience it
“The process of learned helplessness occurs when an individual sees defeat as inevitable.”
38 of 63
Define what is meant by the term 'mastery orientation' & which performers are more likely to experience it
“They are confident and feel in control of their own destiny so they expect to be successful in the future and overcome any failures.”
39 of 63
What is attribution retraining?
One way of helping performers avoid failure - by focusing on positive attributions and the removal of any negative feelings, such as “I'm just not good enough.”
40 of 63
What is visualisation & how does it link to goal setting?
The process of creating a mental image of what you want to happen. You see yourself acheiving your goals in the future.
41 of 63
Define the term 'ritual'
‘A formal /ceremonial event or action’
42 of 63
What is the purpose of a ritual? List ideas
Unites performers & crowds, generates respect, strengthens social bonds and enhances group cohesion, demonstrate respect for opponents, links to culture, raises arousal levels
43 of 63
What is visual awareness training?
‘training the eyes and thought processes to control decision making, leading to the correct response, quickly and with more consistent accuracy’
44 of 63
Why is visual awareness training important?
Anticipate opponents actions, recognise typical patterns of play, eliminate choking, increase successful performance links, speed up recycling
45 of 63
Define the term 'recyling' & give an EG
‘the speed an individual takes to control, think and pass the ball on.’ EG – Arsene Wenger > trained Arsenal to recycle at an average speed of 3.2s
46 of 63
Define peripheral vision & give an EG
The ability to perceive actions from 'the corner of their eye'
47 of 63
Define acuity & give an EG
Attention to fine detail and concerned with clarity and sharpness
48 of 63
Define depth perception & give an EG
Ability to see down field and judge how far away players/objects/targets are
49 of 63
Define vergence & give an EG
The ability to fixate on an oncoming object
50 of 63
Define contrast sensitivity & give an EG
Ability to determine subtle differences in black and white
51 of 63
Define accomodation & give an EG
The ability to change focus from distant to near objects.
52 of 63
What is reaction time? Give an EG
‘time between a stimulus and the first movement initiated in response to it’ Eg - time between gun shot at start of 100m & athlete initiating movement
53 of 63
What is movement time? Give an EG
‘time taken to complete a task once it has been initiated’ EG - time after first movement to athlete completing race
54 of 63
What is response time? Give an EG
combined time taken to react and to complete the task or movement’ EG - time taken from start of gun to athlete completing race
55 of 63
Define selective attention
‘the ability to focus on relevant cues and cut out the non relevant cues to enhance performance’
56 of 63
Define cohesion
‘dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together in the pursuit of goals and objectives’
57 of 63
Name each part of the memory & identify how long information can be stored in each area
STSS - very large amounts of info for approx ½ second, STM - Approx 5-9 items for 30 seconds. (number of items can be improved by chunking), LTM - unlimited information for lifetime (if well learned)info may require cue/code to be recalled
58 of 63
Carron (1980) states that all groups exhibit 3 key charateristics, identify & explain each one
Collective identity, sense of shared purpose, structured patterns of communication
59 of 63
Define task cohesion & give EG
‘the degree to which members of the group work together to achieve common goals’ – EG to win a specific match
60 of 63
Define social cohesion & give EG
‘reflects the degree to which members of the team like each other and interact accordingly’ EG - think about lower level players rather than elite here
61 of 63
Identify & describe the 4 stages of group development & give EGs
Forming, storming, norming, performing
62 of 63
Identify & describe the 4 factors that can affect the development of cohesion
Environmental factors, personal factors, leadership factors, team factors
63 of 63

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

List the benefits of goal setting

Back

Motivates performer, performer is more organised and efficient, performer can plan training and performance programmes, performer focuses on key elements of performance, helps to reduce anxiety and control arousal, builds self confidence

Card 3

Front

State what objective goals are and give an example

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State what subjective goals are and give an example

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define what an outcome goal is and give an example

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Sports psychology resources »