2.2 - Biological Molecules

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Describe the structure of a water molecule
Water is one atom of oxygen covalently bonded to two atoms of hydrogen. The negative hydrogen electrons are slightly pulled towards the oxygen, giving oxygen a slight negative charge; giving each hydrogen atom a slight positive charge
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State five properties of water
Hydrogen bonds give water a high specific heat capacity. Hydrogen bonds give water a high latent heat of evaporation. Water's polarity makes it very cohesive. It's polarity makes it a good solvent. Water is less dense when solid
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How are glycosidic bonds formed and broken?
During synthesis, in a condensation reaction, a hydrogen atom bonds to the hydroxyl group, releasing a molecule of water. The reverse of this is a hydrolysis reaction
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Describe the structure of starch
Starch is a mixture of two alpha-glucose polysaccharides - amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is long and unbranched with a coiled structure. Amylopectin is long and branched, and straight
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What is the function of cellulose?
Cellulose is the major component of cell walls in plants
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What are triglycerides composed of?
Three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol, containing the elements: Oxygen, Carbon and Hydrogen
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Describe the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid
The difference is in the hydrocarbon tails. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between their carbon atoms, and unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond
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What is the general structure of an amino acid?
A carboxyl group (-COOH) and an amino group (-NH2) attached to a carbon atom. Different amino acids have different variable groups
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What bond joins amino acids together in proteins?
Peptide bonds
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What are the types of protein?
Globular proteins - soluble and easily transported. Fibrous proteins - tough and strong, also insoluble
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Describe the difference between a cation and an anion
Cations are negatively charged ions, and anions are positively charged
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What is the chemical symbol for: 1)calcium 2)ammonium 3)phosphate
1) Ca(2+) 2)NH(4-) 3)PO4(3-)
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How would you test a solution for starch?
Add iodine dissolved in potassium iodide solution and if starch is present, samples changes from browny-orange to blue-black colour
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How would you test for lipids?
Shake test substance with ethanol for one minute and then pour into water, if lipids are presence the solution turns milky
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What is a biosensor?
A device that uses a biological molecule to detect a chemical - molecule produces a signal, converted to an electrical signal by a transducer and is the processed
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What is chromatography used for?
Used to separate out the components of a mixture, such as: amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State five properties of water

Back

Hydrogen bonds give water a high specific heat capacity. Hydrogen bonds give water a high latent heat of evaporation. Water's polarity makes it very cohesive. It's polarity makes it a good solvent. Water is less dense when solid

Card 3

Front

How are glycosidic bonds formed and broken?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the structure of starch

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of cellulose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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