Biology:II (incomplete)

I have a progress test coming up, on what we have studied so far, however we had one about a month ago and they wanted to make sure nothing overlapped, hence why there is such a mish-mash of topics.

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  • Biology: II
    • cell cycle
      • stages
        • Anaphase
          • centrioles pull
          • spindles contract
            • pulls chromasomes apart
        • Metaphase
          • no nuclear membrane
          • nuclear spindle is formed
          • chromosomes move to spindle and attach
        • Telophase
        • Prophase
          • DNA condenses
          • weaker nuclear membrane
          • centrioles move to opposite poles
          • nucleolus disappears
        • Cytokinesis
        • Interphase
          • 2 centrioles are present
            • these are anchors to pull apart the cell later on
          • cell seems unchnaged
          • protein synthesis
          • cytoplasm volume increases
          • 22 hours
      • 24 hours long
    • nucleic acids
      • nucleotides
        • monomers of nucleic acids
          • each nucleotide contains
            • a sugar molecule
            • a phosphate group
            • a nitrogenous base
              • this decides what it is attached to
          • three subunits are joined covalently
            • this happens in a condensation reaction
        • polynucleotides
          • nucleic acids are polynucleotides
          • sugar-phosphate backbone
            • formed by a condensation reaction
              • the bond formed is called a phosphodiester
          • purine bases
            • two carbon rings
              • Adenine
                • 2 H bonds
                  • Thynine
              • Guanine
                • 3 H bonds
                  • Cytosine
          • pyrimidine bases
            • single carbon ring
              • Thynine
              • Cytosine
              • Uracil
      • DNA
        • DNA replication
          • semi-conservative
            • the original strand acts as a template
            • each replicated strand contains an old and new strand
            • evidence for this
              • conservative
                • parental DNA remains intact
                • separate daughter copy is built from new molecules
              • semi-conservative
                • each DNA molecule splits and each strand replicated
                • each one of the 2 new molecules has one strand or original and one new
                  • Untitled
              • dispersive
                • parental DNA not broken down
                • new nucleotides randomly dispersed
                • the new molecules contain both new and old material
          • stages
            • double helix unwinds
            • H bonds break "unzip"
            • free nucleotides join according to base-pairing rule
            • phosphodiester bonds form between the phosphate and deoxyribose sugar
              • this seals the backbone
          • enzymes
            • helicase breaks down the h bonds
            • DNA polymerise joins the nucleotides in the new strand
            • proof-reading endonuclease cute out a wrongly-paired base
    • diet and health
    • enzymes
      • they are biological catalysts
      • globular proteins with specific tertiary structure
      • they catalyse metabolic reactions
        • large to small= catabolic
      • induced fit model
        • shape of the active site does not match the substrate completely
        • active site moulds itself around the substrate
        • a close fit is needed before the reaction can take place
      • intracellular
        • enzyme that remains only active within the cell in which it was formed
      • extracellular
        • an enzyme that functions outside of where it was formed
  • transport across membranes
    • Biology: II
      • cell cycle
        • stages
          • Anaphase
            • centrioles pull
            • spindles contract
              • pulls chromasomes apart
          • Metaphase
            • no nuclear membrane
            • nuclear spindle is formed
            • chromosomes move to spindle and attach
          • Telophase
          • Prophase
            • DNA condenses
            • weaker nuclear membrane
            • centrioles move to opposite poles
            • nucleolus disappears
          • Cytokinesis
          • Interphase
            • 2 centrioles are present
              • these are anchors to pull apart the cell later on
            • cell seems unchnaged
            • protein synthesis
            • cytoplasm volume increases
            • 22 hours
        • 24 hours long
      • nucleic acids
        • nucleotides
          • monomers of nucleic acids
            • each nucleotide contains
              • a sugar molecule
              • a phosphate group
              • a nitrogenous base
                • this decides what it is attached to
            • three subunits are joined covalently
              • this happens in a condensation reaction
          • polynucleotides
            • nucleic acids are polynucleotides
            • sugar-phosphate backbone
              • formed by a condensation reaction
                • the bond formed is called a phosphodiester
            • purine bases
              • two carbon rings
                • Adenine
                  • 2 H bonds
                  • Guanine
                    • 3 H bonds
                • pyrimidine bases
                  • single carbon ring
                    • Uracil
            • DNA
              • DNA replication
                • semi-conservative
                  • the original strand acts as a template
                  • each replicated strand contains an old and new strand
                  • evidence for this
                    • conservative
                      • parental DNA remains intact
                      • separate daughter copy is built from new molecules
                    • semi-conservative
                      • each DNA molecule splits and each strand replicated
                      • each one of the 2 new molecules has one strand or original and one new
                        • Untitled
                    • dispersive
                      • parental DNA not broken down
                      • new nucleotides randomly dispersed
                      • the new molecules contain both new and old material
                • stages
                  • double helix unwinds
                  • H bonds break "unzip"
                  • free nucleotides join according to base-pairing rule
                  • phosphodiester bonds form between the phosphate and deoxyribose sugar
                    • this seals the backbone
                • enzymes
                  • helicase breaks down the h bonds
                  • DNA polymerise joins the nucleotides in the new strand
                  • proof-reading endonuclease cute out a wrongly-paired base
          • diet and health
          • enzymes
            • they are biological catalysts
            • globular proteins with specific tertiary structure
            • they catalyse metabolic reactions
              • large to small= catabolic
            • induced fit model
              • shape of the active site does not match the substrate completely
              • active site moulds itself around the substrate
              • a close fit is needed before the reaction can take place
            • intracellular
              • enzyme that remains only active within the cell in which it was formed
            • extracellular
              • an enzyme that functions outside of where it was formed
        • diffusion
          • the motion is random
          • facilitated diffusion
            • doesn't use ATP
            • passive process, relying on KE only
            • channel proteins
              • channels are selective
              • these allow water-soluble molecules only to pass
            • carrier proteins
              • binds to a specific protein when present
                • which causes a change in shape
              • no use of external energy
          • rate of diffusion is affected by
            • the distance over which it occurs
              • shorter distance, faster rate
            • the area over which diffusion takes place
              • larger area, faster rate of diffusion
            • the concentration gradient
              • the greater the differnece in gradients, the faster it occurs
          • example of passive transport
          • osmosis
            • special kind of diffusion
            • water potential
              • measured in units of pressure
              • standard is 0
              • the value must always be less than 0
              • addition of solute will reduce this water potential
            • solute potential
              • the change in water potential as a consequence of solute molecules is called solute potential
              • addition of solute will reduce this water potential
            • pressure potential
              • resistance to the entry of water
            • passage of water from a place of higher water potential, to a region of lower water potential across a partially permeable membrane
      • gas exchange
        • small to large= ana

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