2.2 Carbohydrates - monosaccharides

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  • 2.2 Carbohydrates- monosaccharides
    • C atoms readily bond to other C atoms so sequnces of C atoms build up, so life on earth consequence of lifebeing based on carbon atom -> carbon molecules: organic molecules
    • Indiviual molecules that make up chain of indivudal molecules - monomers. C monomers join to form long chains of repeating monomers - polymers
      • examples of polymers are biological molecules, i.e. proteins and carbohydrates
    • carbohydates - basic monomer unit is sugar/ saccharide so single monomer is a monosaccharide. A pair of monosaccharides = disaccharides. Lots joined = polysacccharides
    • Monosacharides - sweet, soluble and genral formula (CH2)n, with n any number 3-7.
      • glucose - famous monosaccharide. hexos molecule with general formula C6H12O6. Molecular arrangement forms ring
    • all mono and some disaccharides are reducing sugars (can donate e- to another chemical). reduction - chemical reaction envolving gain in e-.
      • test for reducing sugars - Benedicts test using benedicts reagent, an alkaline copper sulfate solution. when heated with reducing sugar forms insoluble red precipate of copper oxide.
        • 1. Add 2cm3 of food sample to test tube in liquid form (if solid grind up with water)
          • 2. add 2cm3 of Benedicts reagent
            • 3. heat mixture gently in water bath for 5 mins
              • results: no change- none Green-v.low, Yellow-low, orange-medium, brick red/brown/redy orange - high

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