Unit 2 biological molecules definitions

All the definitions from the blue text boxes in the OCR biology AS text book. I found it helpful to revise with all the definitions together.

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Unit 2, Module 1: Biological Molecules
1 Biochemistry and metabolism:
Risk factor- is a factor that increases your chance of developing a particular disease.
Metabolism- is the sum of the total of all the biochemical reactions taking place in the cells
of an organism.
2 Biochemicals and bonds:
Covalent bonds- are formed when electrons are shared between atoms. These bonds are
strong and covalently bonded atoms form new molecules.
3 Carbohydrates 1: simple sugars
Carbohydrates- make up a group of molecules containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in
the ratio Cn(H2O)n.
4 Carbohydrates 2: energy storage
Polysaccharides- are polymers of monosaccharides. They consist of hundreds to thousands
of monosaccharide monomers bonded together to form a large single molecule.
5 Carbohydrates 3: structural units
Cellulose- a carbohydrate polymer made by bonding many -glucose molecules together in
long chains.
6 Amino Acids- the monomers of proteins
Amino Acids- are monomers of all proteins. All have the same base structure. The 20
different amino acids involved in protein synthesis differ only in the R-group bonded to the
central carbon.
7 Proteins from amino acids
Primary Structure- of a protein is given by specific sequence of amino acids that make up
the protein.
8 Levels of protein structure
Secondary Structure- refers to coiling and pleating of parts of the polypeptide molecule.
Tertiary structure- refers to the overall 3D structure of the final polypeptide or protein

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Proteins in action
Haemoglobin- a globular transport protein.
Collagen- a fibrous structural protein.
10 Lipids are not polymers
Lipids- a diverse group of chemicals that dissolve in organic solvents, such as alcohol, but
not in water. They include fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol.
11 Essential oils?
12 Water- a vital biological molecule
Hydrogen Bond- a weak interaction that can occur wherever molecules contain a slightly
negatively charged atom bonded to a slightly positively charged hydrogen. Water molecules
hydrogen-bond with each other extensively.…read more

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Enzymes are globular proteins
Catalyst- a molecule that speeds up a chemical reaction but does not get used up. At the
end, the catalyst remains unchanged.
19 Inside and out- where enzymes work best
Extracellular- enzymes catalyse reactions outside the cell.
Intracellular- enzymes catalyse reactions inside the cell.
20 Enzyme action
Activation Energy- the amount of energy that must be applied for a reaction to proceed.
Different reactions require different levels of activation energy.…read more

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Interfering with the enzymes- poisons and drugs
Biosensor- uses enzyme-controlled reactions to detect the presence of substances in a
highly sensitive and specific way. If the substance is present, the enzyme-controlled reaction
takes place. The biosensor has a mechanism for revealing whether product is made.
27 Investigating enzyme action-1
Variable- any factor that may change and therefore affect the reaction rate. Enzyme
investigations require all variables to be controlled.…read more


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