4.2.1

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Explain the polarity of alcohols.
Alcohols have a polar O-H bond, so alcohol molecules are polar; alcohols can form hydrogen bonds between the polar O-H groups; alcohols have a low volatility as hydrogen bonds are very strong; alcohols are very water soluble becauseofthehydrogenbond.
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Can you classify alcohols?
Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; classification depends on the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon atom that contains the alcohol functional group.
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Explain the combustion of alcohols.
Alcohols burn completely in a plentiful supply of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water; the reaction is exothermic.
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Explain the oxidation of alcohols.
Primary and secondary alcohols can be oxidised by an oxidising agent, ie K2Cr2O7, the solution changes from yellow to green when the alcohol is oxidised; primary = aldehyde or carboxylic acid; secondary = ketone; tertiary = no reaction.
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Explain the dehydration of alcohols.
This is any reaction where water molecule is removed from the starting material; an alcohol is heated under reflux with an acid catalyst, H2SO4 or H3PO4; the product is an alkene.
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Explain the substitution reactions of alcohols.
Alcohols react with hydrogen halides to form haloalkanes; the alcohol is heated under reflux with sulphuric acid and a sodium halide, the hydrogen bromides formed in situ (in place).
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Card 2

Front

Can you classify alcohols?

Back

Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; classification depends on the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon atom that contains the alcohol functional group.

Card 3

Front

Explain the combustion of alcohols.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain the oxidation of alcohols.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain the dehydration of alcohols.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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