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Chapter 1
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1.1 Fundamental Particles
Proton Neutron Electron
Relative Mass 1 1 1/1836
Relative Charge +1 0 -1
Where It's Found Nucleus Nucleus Orbits around nucleus
Mass Number (top) ­ sum of the number of protons and neutrons in
the nucleus of an atom. The number of neutrons can be found by
subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
Atomic Number (bottom) ­ the number of protons in the nucleus of
an atom. AKA Proton Number.
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Slide 3

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1.2 Arrangement Of Electrons
The first shell holds up to 2 electrons.
The second shell holds up to 8 electrons.
The third shell holds up to 18 electrons.
Electrons are a cloud of charge.
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Slide 4

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1.3 Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of protons in its nucleus but
different number of neutrons.
Isotopes of the same elements have identical chemical properties.
Because isotopes have different masses, their physical properties
are slightly different.
Some isotopes are unstable, and decay by giving off radiation which
can be detected.
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Slide 5

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1.4 The Mass Spectrometer
The mass spectrometer is an instrument used to:
measure the relative masses of isotopes.
Find the relative abundance of the isotopes in a sample of an
Five stages: Vaporisation, Ionisation, Acceleration,
Deflection, Detection.
Mass spectrometer uses a vacuum pump to remove air from
the apparatus otherwise the ions would undergo random
collisions with air particles.
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Slide 6

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1.4 The Mass Spectrometer
The sample has to be in its gaseous form. If the sample is a liquid
or solid, a heater is used to vaporise some of the sample. X(s) > X
(g) or X(l) > X(g)
The gas particles are bombarded with high-energy electrons to
ionise them.
A beam of electrons from an `electron gun' knocks out electrons
from atoms or molecules
These positive ions are attracted towards negatively charged
plates and are accelerated to a high speed.
The speed they reach depends on their mass ­ the lighter the ions,
the faster they'll go.
Jasvir Virdi
Some ions pass through slits in the plates ­ this forms the ions…read more

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