Chemistry AS Chains,Energy & Resources Key Definitions

All of the key definitions

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A compound consisting of hyrdrogen and carbon only

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Homologous Series

A series or organic compounds that have the same functional group but each successive member differing by CH2

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Functional Group

A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound

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Contains single bonds only

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Consists of at least one multiple carbon to carbon bond

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Empirical Formula

The simplest whole number ratio of an atoms of each element present in a compound

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Molecular Formula

The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

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Structural Isomer

A compound with the same molecular formula but a different structural formulae

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Compounds with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space

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E/Z Isomerism

An example of stereoisomerism, in terms of restricted rotation about a double bond and the requirement for two different groups to attach to each carbon of the C=C group

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Cis-Trans Isomerism

A special case of E/Z isomerism in which two of the constituent groups are the same

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Fractional Distillation

The seperation of a liquid mixture into fractions with different boiling points

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Catalytic Cracking

The breaking down of longer chained saturated hyrdocarbons into more useful alkanes (shorter chained) and alkenes

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A fuel which is derived from recently living material such as plants and animal waste

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Curly Arrow

The movement of an electron pair, showing either the breaking or formation of a covalent bond

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A species with an unpaired electron

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Homolytic Fission

The breaking of a covalent bond where the shared pair of electrons are split equally forming two radicals

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Heterolytic Fission

The breaking of a covalent bond where the shared pair of electrons split unequally to form a cation and an anion

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Electron pair acceptor

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Electron pair donor

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really, really useful to see them all in one place - thanks! 

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