World Cities Content (No case studies)

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  • Created by: Megan
  • Created on: 09-06-15 17:16

Millionaire, Mega and World Cities

Millionaire City - an urban area with over a million people living there

Mega City - an urban area with over 10 million people living there

World City - a city with global influence. Hubs for business, trade, culture, science and transport

Urbanisation

Movement from rural areas to urban areas resulting in an increase in the urban population.

Caused by rural-urban migration and natural increase.

Push Factors

  • Desertification - land is unproductive, can't sustain population
  • Some farmers take out loans to improve yields - crops fail, unable to pay back, lose land
  • Conflict and civil war
  • Natural disasters
  • Changes is land use - dams etc displace people
  • Mechanisation of agriculture

Pull Factors

  • More jobs
  • Better paid jobs
  • Health and education services
  • Perceived better quality of life

Impacts

  • housing shortages - slums
  • Slums at risk of landslides/floods
  • Demand on resources - lack of basic services
  • Wealth gap - social problems - crime etc
  • High competition for jobs in formal sector - migrants have to accept low wages, poor working conditions and little job security
  • Informal sector - can be dangerous, poorly paid, no job security
  • Increased pressure on roads and railways - congestion and pollution

Management

  • New houses to replace slums
  • Improving services avzailable
  • Getting resisents involved

Suburbanisation

Movement of people from central urban areas to outskirts - rural-urban fringe etc

Push Factors

  • Inner city housing can be of poor quality and lack basic services
  • Slum clearance - new houses provided on outskirts
  • Deindustrialisation led to job loss
  • Unemployment in city - less money to spend there - local shops and services close

Pull Factors

  • Laxer planning regulations, easier to build new housing estates
  • Improvements in public transport make commuting possible
  • Businesses and shobs can rent out spaces for cheaper

Impacts

  • Inner city dereliction as people move away
  • Unemployment - lowers living standards and poverty
  • Wealthier middle class move to suburbs - economic segregation
  • Commuters - congestion and pollution
  • New housing states built on open countryside - affects wildlife habitats
  • More ground is concreted - surface run off - flood risk

Management

  • Redevelopment schemes in inner cities
  • Greenbelts
  • Traffic management
  • Flood defence schemes

Counter-Urbanisation

Movement from urban areas to rural areas

Push Factors

  • Escape air and noise pollution
  • Congestion and parking
  • House prices rise in suburban areas - not getting value for money

Pull Factors

  • Lower housing density
  • Quieter life - better quality of life
  • Improved communication services mean you can work from home
  • Technological improvements 
  • Car ownership and rail services

Impacts

  • Increase in business due to new demographic that have higher disposable income
  • Houses improved and renovated
  • Schools can stay open
  • Out of character of area
  • Congestion and pollution
  • Housing demand increases house prices, young locals may not be afford to buy houses there

Management

  • Developments have to be in keeping
  • Companies offer mobile services that visit remote areas e.g NatWest mobile banking
  • Some affordable housing must be built

Re-Urbanisation

Pull Factors

  • Government policies favour brownfield sites - new developments in inner cities

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