World Cities Content (No case studies)

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  • Created by: Megan
  • Created on: 09-06-15 17:16

Millionaire, Mega and World Cities

Millionaire City - an urban area with over a million people living there

Mega City - an urban area with over 10 million people living there

World City - a city with global influence. Hubs for business, trade, culture, science and transport


Movement from rural areas to urban areas resulting in an increase in the urban population.

Caused by rural-urban migration and natural increase.

Push Factors

  • Desertification - land is unproductive, can't sustain population
  • Some farmers take out loans to improve yields - crops fail, unable to pay back, lose land
  • Conflict and civil war
  • Natural disasters
  • Changes is land use - dams etc displace people
  • Mechanisation of agriculture

Pull Factors

  • More jobs
  • Better paid jobs
  • Health and education services
  • Perceived better quality of life


  • housing shortages - slums
  • Slums at risk of landslides/floods
  • Demand on resources - lack of basic services
  • Wealth gap - social problems - crime etc
  • High competition for jobs in formal sector - migrants have to accept low wages, poor working conditions and little job security
  • Informal sector - can be dangerous, poorly paid, no job security
  • Increased pressure on roads and railways - congestion and pollution


  • New houses to replace slums
  • Improving services avzailable
  • Getting resisents involved


Movement of people from central urban areas to outskirts - rural-urban fringe etc

Push Factors

  • Inner city housing can be of poor quality and lack basic services
  • Slum clearance - new houses provided on outskirts
  • Deindustrialisation led to job loss
  • Unemployment in city - less money to spend there - local shops and services close

Pull Factors

  • Laxer planning regulations, easier to build new housing estates
  • Improvements in public transport make commuting possible
  • Businesses and shobs can rent out spaces for cheaper


  • Inner city dereliction as people move away
  • Unemployment - lowers living standards and poverty
  • Wealthier middle class move to suburbs - economic segregation
  • Commuters - congestion and pollution
  • New housing states built on open countryside - affects wildlife habitats
  • More ground is concreted - surface run off - flood risk


  • Redevelopment schemes in inner cities
  • Greenbelts
  • Traffic management
  • Flood defence schemes


Movement from urban areas to rural areas

Push Factors

  • Escape air and noise pollution
  • Congestion and parking
  • House prices rise in suburban areas - not getting value for money

Pull Factors

  • Lower housing density
  • Quieter life - better quality of life
  • Improved communication services mean you can work from home
  • Technological improvements 
  • Car ownership and rail services


  • Increase in business due to new demographic that have higher disposable income
  • Houses improved and renovated
  • Schools can stay open
  • Out of character of area
  • Congestion and pollution
  • Housing demand increases house prices, young locals may not be afford to buy houses there


  • Developments have to be in keeping
  • Companies offer mobile services that visit remote areas e.g NatWest mobile banking
  • Some affordable housing must be built


Pull Factors

  • Government policies favour brownfield sites - new developments in inner cities


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