Geography A2-Weather and Climate.


Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Great storm 1987.

  • 15th October 1987.
  • Gust exceeded 150km recorded over exposed coastal areas and Mean wind speeds of 50mph in South East England. Storm centre pressure- pressure rise of 20m in three hours. fell to 951mb over the English channel.
  • Storm/ depression developed over the bay of Biscay to the South.
  • Depression deepened rapidly beacuse of warming sea surface temperatures and a steep temperature gradient between two air masses. Low atmospheric pressure in the core of depression led to development of strong winds.
  • Polar Jet Stream is further south than normal causes depression to form over northern France and Southern England, rather than the north of Scotland. Storm predicted to sweep over France and Spain.
  • Impacts:
  • Short term:19 dead in England and 4 fatalities in France, power, telephone lines knocked down-falling trees, 150,000 houses lost telephone connection. Several hundreds had no electricity for more than 24 hours. Historical buildings damaged/destroyed- Shanklin Pier on Isle of Wright destroyed by waves, 1 million buildings damaged. Long-term: insurance claims totalled £1.4 billion,destroyed 15 million trees.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Great Storm in 1987.

  • Responses:
  • Emergency authorities dealt with huge numbers of emergency calls.
  • Massive recovery and clean up operation set up- phone companies and electricity boards repaired and replaced equipment until phone lines and power was restored. Highways agencies cleared roads, railway companies cleared railways.  Forestry workers collected fallen trees in forests. Hundreds of workers over 2 years to collect and restore timber. Forestry comission- established Forest Windblow Action Commitee-woodlands to recover fallen trees and offer advice on replanting.
  • Met office criticised- for the way in which they forcasted the weather and issued warnings: Severe storm warnings issued three hours before the storm hit,  Ministry defence only warned military assistance that they might need help to deal with effects of storm at 1pm on 16th October.
  • Changes made since storm in 1987-More observations of weather systems- now made by ships, aircraft and satelities, Improved computer models used to forcast weather and government made severe weather warning service improving way severe weather warnings are made.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

 Tropical Revolving Storm.: -Hurricane Katrina.

  • 23rd-31st August 2005.
  • Highest wind speed-280km/h.
  • Category 5 Hurricane.
  • Fatalities-1,836.
  • Areas affected include: New Orleans, South Florida.
  • Economic:
  • 230,000 jobs lost and Cost of damage-$300 billion.
  • Katrina damaged or destroyed 30 oil platforms- caused closure of nine refineries.
  • 1.3 million acres of forest lands damaged costs $5 billion( logging industry impacted).
  • Environmental:
  • Lands lost which were breeding grounds for marine animals-turtle breeding beaches, Forced closure of 16 National Wildlife refuges. 
  • Floodwaters in New Orlearns pumped into lake-process that will take 43 days. Residental waters mix of raw sewerage, heavy metals, pesticides, toxic chemicals, and oil- fish dying.
  • Human:
  • 800, 000 housing units destroyed, Agricultural production damaged, 3 million-no electricty for a week and major highways disrupted and major bridges destroyed.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Tropical Revolving storm:-Hurricane Katrina. Responses before it hit:

  • State of emergency declared in Louisiana and Mississippi.
  • US Coast Gurad positioned helicopters and boats around area likely to be affected and FEMA organised teams and supplies.
  • $50 billion in aid given by the government.
  • Uk government sent food aid during early stages of recovery process.
  • Sophisicated monitoring systems- predict- National Hurricane Centre (NHC) in Florida uses satellite images and hurricane hunter planes which collect weather data on storms.
  • Most management and aid in responses came from USA internal Federal aid. Storm predicted by national hurricane centre and hurricane expected to fall not far from New Orleans-coordination and evacuation.
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency-(FEMA) preparations. FEMA provided housing in New Orleans and provided hotel costs for 12,000 people displaced by Katrina.
  • 100,000 people didn't evacuate. Emergency shelters set up-Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans-sheltered 26,000 people-not prepared-Superdome only had enough food for 15,000.Coastguard rescued over 50,000 people after the hurricane hit,
  • 58,000 national guard troops-from all over US- rescued-17,000.
  • Evacuation not helpful for people without transport-poorer residents 80% evacuated.
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Geography A2-Weather and climate case studies.

Tropical Revolving Storm:-Cyclone Nargis, Burma, May 2008.

  • Burma South-west of Bangladesh.
  • Highest wind speed-215km/h.
  • fatalities 140,000.
  • Affected areas: India, Yangon, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Burma.
  • Category 4 severe tropical cyclone.
  • Storm surge reaches-6.3 metres high.
  • Impacts:
  • $10 billion damage and 450,000 houses destroyed.
  • Majority of population worked on flooded rice fields-lost harvest and income.
  • 75% of buildings collapsed.
  • Rice fields flooded. 2008-2009 rice harvests destroyed-salination- salt content of land risen.
  • 1.5 million homeless.
  • Factors increasing severity: low-lying land-14,000 km2 land flooded, little warning /preparations- no emergency supplies/evacuation plans, Last 30 years, Malgrove forests along coast of Myanmur-been cleared- no natural protection from winds and storm waves.
  • Myanmur government made it difficult for aid workers to enter the country, several days until full relief effort.
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Geography A2- World Cities Case Studies.

Tropical Revolving Storms:-Cyclone Nargis, Burma.

  •  Immediate Responses:
  • 2.5 million left without shelter.
  • No emergency/ evacuation plans.
  • Reliance on other countries to issue warnings- Indian weather agencies warned-Burmese government cyclone going to hit country 48 hours before it hit.
  • Burmese weather forcasters didn't give any advice on preparations or evacuation or say the severity of cyclone. Tv and radio warnings breached- didn't reach poorer areas.
  • Burmes Government refused aid-responses slow as a result and social impacts more severe.
  • Believed aid would destabilse the political oppression.  
  • Slow recieveal of aid meant: 70% had no access to clean water. 
  • UN refugee agency sent in 22 tonnes of emergency equipment e.g. shelters, first aid kits, water purifers.
  • Three weeks after the event- all aid workers allowed in on 23rd May. 
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Tropical Revolving storm:

Cyclone Debbie.

  • Australia.
  • Occured on 23rd March 2017.
  • 11 deaths.
  • Power Cuts.
  • Category 3 on Saffir Simpson Scale.
  • Total damage is $190 million.
  • Winds reached up to 195km/h.
  • Areas affected: South wales and new zealand. 
  • Effects mitigated by preparedness and planning of event- meaning fewer deaths than cyclone Nargis as a result. Human Mismanagment can magnify Tropical Revolving Storms severity.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

British Storm Event- Winter 2014.

  • Weather Conditions:
  • Ground became saturated-depressions-low atmospheric pressure.
  • 947mb.
  • Strong winds.
  • fast moving weather fronts/systems.
  • Impacts;
  • 100,000 homes without power.
  • Traffic accidents.
  • 7 deaths.
  • Several homes flooded on east coast of England 1,700 properties flooded across England.
  • $15 billion damage of storms- 1% of economy.
  • Scotland's rail network shut down due to fallen trees.
  • Gatwick Airport was affected by flooding.
  • Cliff erosion- Properties collapsing into the sea. 
  • Agricultural land flooded-Crops destroyed. 
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

British Storm, Winter 2014.

  • Responses
  • Flood warnings issued by environment agency 30 severe flood warnings in early january along with 230 flood warnings..
  • Operation cobra activated- UKs disaster planning committee- dealt with planning, prevention and improving flood defences. 
  • Schemes- £86.5 million fund to help speed the recovery in affected areas., fixing of most damaged roads.
  • Farming flood recovery fund- £10 million which provides grants of 5,000 to support farm businesses.
  • Alternative accomodation for 2,100 households.
  • Government actions on flood defences £270 million made available to repair/ mountain flood defences.
  • Transportation- £183.5 million has been given to local authorities for local highway repair and emergency maintenance, allocated £2 million to help repair small English ports.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

 Tropical wet Monsoon climate-Bangladesh South East Asia.

  • Lines within global climatic zone.
  • Population- one of the most densley populated country in the world with 1,102 people per sq km2. Population is 150 million.
  • One of the poorest nations in the world.
  • Predicted global warming effects:
  • Increase in average temperature of 1.5-2.0c by 2050.
  • Increase of 10-15% in annual precipitation by 2050.
  • Increase in severity and frequency of cyclones-during wet season because of warmer sea temperature in the Bay of Bengal. 
  • 20% increase in River Discharge- Glacier melt in Himalayas.
  • 2001 World Bank- rising sea levels of 3mm per year compared to world average of 2mm. Prediction by 2050, 1m rise in sea level possible-if no preventative action took place. 15% of total land area in Bangladesh would be inundated with salt water.
  • 13-30 million could be displaced from their homes by permanent flooding and total annual rice crop-drop by at least 30% cause of loss of land. Coral reefs damaged-affects species-dolphins.
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Global warming effects on the British Isles.

  • Could result in warmer summers, drought and increased storm activity. On the other hand, if warm Gulf Stream current diverted away from the UK the climate would be cold as Northern Canada.
  • Coastal Regions:
  • Increased mean sea levels, frequency and magnitude of storms. Storm surges and waves would lead to more coastal flooding. 
  • Sea levels to rise by between 12 and 37 cm by 2050- making many low-lying areas vulnerable.
  • Flooding causes disruption in transport, manufacturing and housing.
  • Long-term damage to agricultural land and power station, water supplies contaminated with salt infiltration. 
  • Agriculture:
  • Higher temperatures could cause- decrease in crop yields, increase in growing season for grasses and trees and Introduction off new crops and species.
  • Flora, Fauna and landscape:
  • Extinction of native species northwards and to higher elevations.
  • Disapperance of snow on tops of some mountain ranges, loss of species in damp areas. 
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Geography A2-Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Global warming effects on the British Isles.

  • Soils:
  • Higher temperatures reducing water-holding capacity of some soils-increases likelihood of soil mositure deficits.
  • Stability of building foundations and other structures-in central, eastern and southern England-clay soils- summer become  drier and wetter in winter. Loss of organic matter-affecting stability of certain soil structures.
  • Water resources:
  • Benefit from wetter winters, but warmer summers-increased evaporation could have major effects on water resources.
  • Energy Use:
  • Higher temperatures decrease need for heating, growing demand for air conditioning-increasing electricity consumption. 
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Geography A2 Weather and Climate Case Studies.

Local responses to the climate change- The UK.

  • Cities- London and Manchester use congestion charges to reduce traffic entering the city.
  • Other schemes include: trams, park and ride, to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Individual level:
  • Insulation in homes-cavity wall insulation and double glazing.
  • Recycling:
  • Local councils have set targets for recycling and containers for the collection of paper and cardboard,, glass, aluminium cans, plastic and compostable waste.
  • Individuals can cut energy bills via turning off lights, using less central heating and energy-efficient light bulbs.
  • Public Transport:
  •  cycling and walking e.g. walk to school and Car sharing schemes.
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Geography A2 Weather and Climate Case Studies.

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