Sound waves squash up and stretch out the arrangement of particles in material they pass through, making compressions and rarefactions. Compressions are the bits under high pressure and rarefactions are the parts under low pressure.
The wavelength is a full cycle of the wave.
Frequency is how many complete waves there are per second - measured in hertz. For sound high frequency = high pitch.
The amplitude tells you how much energy the wave is carrying, or how loud the sound is - seen on an oscilloscope (CRO) - displays shows the sounds as transverse waves. You measure the amplitude from the middle line to the crest.
In Longitudinal waves the vibrations are along the same direction as the wave is travelling.
In Transverse waves waves the vibrations are at 90 degrees to the…