X-rays, Ultrasound, Endoscope, Refraction

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  • Created by: Lizzi
  • Created on: 19-05-13 17:35
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  • X-rays, Ultrasound, Endoscope, Refraction
    • X-rays and  ultrasound
      • X-rays used to: make images (on photographic paper)and CT scans; to destroy tumours near the surface
      • X-rays can damage living tissue whilst passing through (ionisation)
      • X-rays are more absorbed by bones and teeth than by tissue
      • Ultrasound waves are above 20000Hz, so can't be heard
      • Ultrasound can be used for diagnosis and treatment
      • U.S  waves are partly reflected at the boundary of two body tissues
      • U.S is non-ionising so safer X-rays
    • Refraction (Index)
      • the light direction change as it passes from one substance into another
      • takes place due to change of speed
      • Refraction index = sin i/ sin r
    • Endoscope
      • Use total internal reflection: when the angle of incidence is increased beyond the the critical angle
      • Used to see inside the body, either without surgery or with keyhole surgery
      • Contains thin optical fibres
      • Used for procedures like cutting, cauterisation,and burning. Laser light is also used for eye surgery
      • refractive index = 1/sinC


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