Theme C- Crime, Sentencing and Punishment



Key crimes include violence, homicide, firearms offences, robbery/theft, cybercrimes, sexual offences, public order offences and criminal damage.

Factors affecting crime rates: unemployment rise, poverty, social and familky breakdown, abuse, misuse of drugs/alcohol, new crimes e.g. cyber, changing morals and freedoms, age of population, police policies for reporting/recording crime and rate of re-offending.

Factors affecting crime stats: Level of accuracy, more people reporting crimes, fewer people reporting crimes.

Reasons for not reporting crimes: Not detecting e.g online, being embarrassed, being afraid of criminal getting revenge, not wanting to get offender in trouble, lack of trust and confidence in police, fear they'll be treated as suspect rather than victim, not wanting additional stress etc.

Crime rates in society- conflict bw perception and reality. Perception of increase in crime can be influenced by media. Statistics show overall crime rates falling for 2 decades.

Re-offending: people may re-offend because:

  • No home or job, prison provides food, shelter and healthcare.
  • May have become institutionalised by prison, unable to survive outside system.
  • They may need to fund a drug addiction
  • May learn 'tricks of the trade' from offenders in prison.


  • Increasing community policing e.g. high visibility patrols= prevents crime by building relations with police.
  • high quality education = improves oppurtunites so crime is less attractive.
  • Providing counselling for e.g. addictions= helps people stop abusing drugs and keep away from crime, as funding addiction often leads to crime.
  • Providing positive oppurtunities for YP, e.g youth clubs= involves YP in acitivites so they don't turn to crime out of boredom.


  • Security measure e.g. CCTV- protects people and property by putting off potential criminals if they know they may be caught.
  • Neighbourhood watch schemes- crimes less likely if observers notice activity
  • Improving community e.g…


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