The restoration of the monarchy

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The restoration of the King (1658-60)

The protectorate of Richard Cromwell (September 1658 - April 1659)

- MP from 1654-56.

- He lacked political experience & no training for complex reality of national politics. His younger brother Henry was a bette candidate.

- Henry had political experience & was more popular with the army (whom he led in Ireland)

- Richard appointed his brother-in-law, Charles Fleetwood, commander-in-chief of the Army.

- Fleetwood wanted to maintain the dominant role of the army in British politics.

The 3rd Protectorate Parliament (January - April 1659)

- A new P was called to address serious financial problems faced by the Lord Protector.

- Richard Cromwell sided with P to reduce the cost of England's standing army & attempted to dissolve the Council of Officers.

- Cromwell found it impossible to win the support of the majority of officers whilst they were still owed arrears of pay. He recieved no support from Fleetwood.

- Council of Oficers demanded the dismissal of P, which voted to a vote of no confidence in Richard Cromwell's leadership.

- April 22nd 1659: Richard Cromwell resigned his position as Lord Protector. 

- May 1659: the Rump P was recalled.

- Country was in the throes of poor harvets and a trade recession. 

The Rump restored (May 1659)

- 42 of the 78 former Rump MPs who were eligible to do so retook their seats in the recalled P.

- The Rump of 1649-53 was subject to significant army influence due to Pride's Purge. This was the reason the army chose to restore it.

- The Rump's existence was dependent upon the support of the Army, yet they saw the army as the servant of the Rump.

- Civilian Republicans refused to share power with the army. They asserted civilian control over the army & dominated the Council of State.

- The Rump ignored Army leaders calls for reform & payments of arrears of pay.

The Rump dismissed

- An uneasy alliance dealt with a renewed threat from Royalists, led by Sir George Booth, but further conflict betwen the rump and the army was inevitable.

- The year following Cromwell's death had led to a re-emergence of radical, political & religious groups such as the Levellers, Baptists and Quakers.

- Public & political opinion was moving towards the idea of the restoration of the old constitution.

- The Rump attempted to end army control over P by arresting army leaders, such as John Lambert, who were petitioning P in favour of refom.

- Lambert forcibly dissolved the Rump in October 1659.

The Committee of Safety

- The Council of Officers set up the 23-man Committee of Safety. Its role was: to secure people's liberties as men & Christians; Refrom the Law; Provide for a godly preaching ministry; Settle the constitution without a single person or House of Lords.

- Led by Fleetwood & was comprised of army leaders & civilian supporters of its aims.

- It faced serious problems: Anarchy in…


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