The restoration of the King (1658-60)
The protectorate of Richard Cromwell (September 1658 - April 1659)
- MP from 1654-56.
- He lacked political experience & no training for complex reality of national politics. His younger brother Henry was a bette candidate.
- Henry had political experience & was more popular with the army (whom he led in Ireland)
- Richard appointed his brother-in-law, Charles Fleetwood, commander-in-chief of the Army.
- Fleetwood wanted to maintain the dominant role of the army in British politics.
The 3rd Protectorate Parliament (January - April 1659)
- A new P was called to address serious financial problems faced by the Lord Protector.
- Richard Cromwell sided with P to reduce the cost of England's standing army & attempted to dissolve the Council of Officers.
- Cromwell found it impossible to win the support of the majority of officers whilst they were still owed arrears of pay. He recieved no support from Fleetwood.
- Council of Oficers demanded the dismissal of P, which voted to a vote of no confidence in Richard Cromwell's leadership.
- April 22nd 1659: Richard Cromwell resigned his position as Lord Protector.
- May 1659: the Rump P was recalled.
- Country was in the throes of poor harvets and a trade recession.
The Rump restored (May 1659)
- 42 of the 78 former Rump MPs who were eligible to do so retook their seats in the recalled P.
- The Rump of 1649-53 was subject to significant army influence due to Pride's Purge. This was the reason the army chose to restore it.
- The Rump's existence was dependent upon the support of the Army, yet they saw the army as the servant of the Rump.
- Civilian Republicans refused to share power with the army. They asserted civilian control over the army & dominated the Council of State.
- The Rump ignored Army leaders calls for reform & payments of arrears of pay.
The Rump dismissed
- An uneasy alliance dealt with a renewed threat from Royalists, led by Sir George Booth, but further conflict betwen the rump and the army was inevitable.
- The year following Cromwell's death had led to a re-emergence of radical, political & religious groups such as the Levellers, Baptists and Quakers.
- Public & political opinion was moving towards the idea of the restoration of the old constitution.
- The Rump attempted to end army control over P by arresting army leaders, such as John Lambert, who were petitioning P in favour of refom.
- Lambert forcibly dissolved the Rump in October 1659.
The Committee of Safety
- The Council of Officers set up the 23-man Committee of Safety. Its role was: to secure people's liberties as men & Christians; Refrom the Law; Provide for a godly preaching ministry; Settle the constitution without a single person or House of Lords.
- Led by Fleetwood & was comprised of army leaders & civilian supporters of its aims.
- It faced serious problems: Anarchy in…