Samuel and Bryant

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AIMS: 

  • to re-examine the findings of Piaget
  • how questionning affected answer/thought processes
  • if conservation improved with age
  • more/less able to conserve number/mass/volume

METHOD:

  • Experiment
  • IV = Age/Material/Questionning Type
  • DV = No. of Errors

PARTICIPANTS: 

  • 252 children from schools in Devon
  • 4 age groups (5, 6, 7, 8)
  • 63 per age groups -> 21 per sub-group

DESIGN:

  • Age - Quasi
  • Questioning - Indept Groups (Standard, One Judgement & Fixed Array)
  • Material - Repeated Measures (Number, Mass, Volume)
  • MIXED DESIGN

PROCEDURE:

  • 12 Possible Errors
  • Standard: Pre-Trans, Trans, Post Trans
  • 1-J: Trans, Post Trans
  • Fixed Array: Post Trans
  • Used counter-balancing

RESULTS:

  • Age: 5yrs Standard = 8.5, 8yrs Standard = 1.7
  • Questioning: 8 years Standard = 1.7, 1-J = 1.3 FA = 3.3
  • Material: FA Mass = 1.7

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