- Drew upon ideas of new criminology.
- Lea, young and Matthews and young: They argue that criminology needed to engage more with the 'real' issues of crime control and social policies rather than debate it abstractly.
- Evans ( 1972) :Argued that the victim surveys provide a more valid picture of the extent of crime.
- Crime rates and victimization are higher in marginalized neighbourhoods.
- Merton, howard and Ohlin: suggest the subcultures derive from political marginalization and relative deprivation.
- Social exclusion: The…