RIGHT/LEFT REALISM - TOPIC 4 CRIME AND DEVIANCE

  • Created by: matilda
  • Created on: 14-02-19 11:31
REALIST THEORIES OF CRIME
-realists are concerned with the widespread fear of crime and impact on victims
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REALIST THEORIES OF CRIME
argue there has been a significant rise in the crime rate eg street crime and assault
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RIGHT REALISTS
RIGHT REALISTS - share the New Right / neo conservative political outlook and support the policies
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LEFT REALISTS
LEFT REALISTS - are socialists and favour different polcies for reducing crime
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RIGHT REALISM - THE CAUSE OF CRIME 1
1. individual biological differences - WILSON AND HERNSTEIN - crime is caused by a combination of biological and social factors, argue becoming a criminal is a matter of choice of people who had never been properly socialised
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RIGHT REALISM - THE CAUSE OF CRIME 2
2. inadequate socialisation - the best agency of socialisation is the nuclear family. Society immediates gratification which leads to a lack of self control through poor socialisation in which creates the criminal. It can be pointed out that a dispro
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RIGHT REALISM - THE CAUSE OF CRIME 3
3. individuals rational choice to defend - assumes that individuals have free will and power of reason
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THEORISTS THAT LINK TO RIGHT REALIST CAUSES OF CRIME 1
HIRSCHI 'CONTROL THEORY' we all face temptations to commit crime, most people have strong community ties with family and school, offenders are people with poor self esteem and control which is from poor socialisation.
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THEORISTS THAT LINK TO RIGHT REALIST CAUSES OF CRIME 2
CHARLES MURRAY -poor socialisation causes recidivism, research into underclass found common characteristcs of the criminal ie illegitimacy, violence, unemployment. There has been a rise in lone parent families creating a subcultue for young people wh
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THEORISTS THAT LINK TO RIGHT REALIST CAUSES OF CRIME 3
WILSON AND HERNSTEIN - argue the need to increase the cost of crime - getting caught - ie makring bulidings harder to break into and more security
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THEORISTS THAT LINK TO RIGHT REALIST CAUSES OF CRIME 4
other realists - police should focus on working with local communties to prevent criminal damage
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CRITICISMS OF RIGHT REALIST EXPLANATIONS 1
ignores wider structural causes such as poverty
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CRITICISMS OF RIGHT REALIST EXPLANATIONS 2
overstates offenders rationality and how far they make cost benefit calculations before commiting a crime
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CRITICISMS OF RIGHT REALIST EXPLANATIONS 3
fails to explain impluse / violent crime only some utilitarian crime
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CRITICISMS OF RIGHT REALIST EXPLANATIONS 4
over emphasises biological factors
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RIGHT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
biological and sociological factors cannot be changed however their main focus is on control, containment and punishment of the offenders rather than the underlying causes
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RIGHT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
RIGHT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
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ZERO TOLERANCE - wilson and kelling
essential to maintain character within neighbourhoods to prevent crime so any signs of deterioration such as vandalism and graffitti must be dealt with straight away
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ZERO TOLERANCE - wilson and kelling
believe that the police should focus on street crime such as begging and drunkness so that law abiding citizens feel safe
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ZERO TOLERANCE - wilson and kelling
this policy was introduced in New York however crime rate had already fallen nine years before zero tolerance policy
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YOUNGS VEIW OF ZERO TOLERANCE - wilson and kelling
argues that police in New York need arrests to justify their existence and shortage of serious crimes lead police to 'define deviance up' so arrested people for minor deviant acts and re-labelled them worthy of punishment
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CRITICISMS OF ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY
preoccupied with petty street crime and ignores corporate crime - more costly/harmful
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CRITICISMS OF ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY
gives the police free rein to discriminate against youths and homeless
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CRITICISMS OF ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY
over emphasises control of disorder rather than tackling the causes of neighbourhood decline such as lack of investment
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CRITICISMS OF ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY
target hardening / zero tolerance led to displacement of crime in other areas
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LEFT REALISM
critical of other perspectives that see longer sentences and more prisons as the solution to rising crime rates
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LEFT REALISM
oppose the views of Marxists, Neo-Marxists and radical feminsts
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LEFT REALISM
see 'idealism' as ignoring real victims of crime
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LEFT REALISM
accept crime as a problems for women and working class women communities
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LEFT REALISM
argue that victims should be taken seriously
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LEFT REALISM
causes of crime must be given more emphasis by politicians
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THE CAUSES OF CRIME - LEA AND YOUNG
RELATIVE DEPRIVATION- SUBCULTURE- MARGINALISATION
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
refer to Runcimans concept of RD- refers to how deprived someone feels in relation to others, compared with their own expectations, this can lead to crime when people resent others unfairly
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
people are more aware of RD due to media and advertisment which raises expectations for material possessions and those who cannot afford result to crime
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
main focus is RD as most members are victims of crime - vulnerable members of society
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
Young suggests that wealthier societies got crime rates increased due to people who see themselves as deprived
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
RD does not just lead to crime it can lead to individualism - refers to the concen with one's self and individual rights , it causes crime by encouraging the pursuit of self interest at the expense of others
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME RD
increasing individualism and a combination of RD leads to causing disintegration of families and community by undermining the values of mutal support, this leads to the weaking of informal controls which creates anti social behaviour, aggression and
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME SUBCULTURE
cohen, merton, cloward and ohlin - concepts of blocked opportunities and subcultures as a groups reaction to the failure to achieve mainstream goals - a subculture is a groups collective solution to the problem of relative deprivation
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME SUBCULTURE
different groups produce different subcultural solutions to this problem, some may turn to crime to close the 'deprivation gap' others find religion offers a 'theodicy of disprivilege' - weber
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME SUBCULTURE
criminal subcultures still subscribe to values and goals of mainstream society - materialism and consumerism - american dream - however opportunities to achieve these goals can be blocked so they resort to crime instead
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME MARGINALISATION
marginalised groups lack both clear goals and organisation, groups such as workers have clear goals and better pay, there is no need to resort to violence and crime
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LEFT REALISM - CAUSES OF CRIME MARGINALISATION
changes in world economy leads to the decline in unskilled workers and semi skilled occupations, eg afro carribeans and other lower class group of males with low levels of education - this excludes them from mainstream society through inacessible job
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LEFT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
POLICING AND CONTROL - police need to improve relationships with local communities and spend more time on investigating crime
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LEFT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
crime cannot be left just to the police a multi agency is needed
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LEFT REALISM - TACKLING CRIME
crime lies in the unequal structures of society so strutcural changes need to be made, dealing with the inequality and unfairness in society
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LEFT REALISM EVALUATION
suceeds to drawing attention to the reality of street crime and its effects
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LEFT REALISM EVALUATION
interactions - argure because left realists rly on quantitv data from victim surveys they cannot explain the offenders motives
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LEFT REALISM EVALUATION
use of subcultural theory means that left realists assume that value consensus exists and that crime only occurs when this breaks down
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Card 2

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REALIST THEORIES OF CRIME

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argue there has been a significant rise in the crime rate eg street crime and assault

Card 3

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RIGHT REALISTS

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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LEFT REALISTS

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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RIGHT REALISM - THE CAUSE OF CRIME 1

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