Key Beliefs In Islam

Key Beliefs

Sunni and Shi'a Muslims

Before the prophet muhammed (pbuh) passed, there was no division. However the reason for conflict was when it was being decided who should succeed him as Caliph of the islamic state created.

Abu Bakr was a friend of Muhammed. The sunni muslims believed he should succeed Muhammed (pbuh) and be caliph, due to muhammed asking him to read the congregational prayers on his deathbed.

Ali was Muhammed's cousin and son in law. Shi'a (minority) muslims believe that he should've been Caliph due to Muhammed supposedly announcing he would be and taking his hand on his last trip back from Hajj.

Abu Bakr was first Caliph- Ali later went on to be 4th Caliph.

Six Articles of faith- Sunni Muslims

  • Tawhid
  • Prophethood
  • Angels
  • Pre-destination
  • Day of Judgement
  • Holy Books

Five Roots of Usul-ad-Din- Shi'a Muslims

  • Tawhid
  • Day of Judgement
  • Belief in Imams
  • Allah is just/fair
  • Prophethood, muhammed was the last prophet

Five Pillars- Obligatory acts for ALL MUSLIMS

  • Zakah- donating 2.5% of yearly income to charity
  • Shahadah- Tawhid and Muhammed as the last prophet
  • Salat- daily prayer rituals
  • Sawm- fasting during ramadam
  • Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca

Tawhid = The Oneness of Allah

This is in shahadah- the foundation for the pillars of faith; very important

"There is only one God, Allah, and muhammed is his prophet" Shahadah

"He is god the one, God the Absolute"- Surah 112

The Nature Of God

Omnipotent- All powerful- Allah has power and control over everything

Beneficience- All good

Adalat (Shi'a)- A just judge- good acts recieve good, evil acts recieve evil

Merciful- Compasssionate and forgiving

Immanence- Allah plays an active role in our lives, and is throughout the universe

Transcendence- Allah is beyond time, space and human comprehension

Angels (Malakaih)

Every human has two guardian angels- one records good deeds, one records bad deeds.

Angels are spiritual beings created from light. In islam there are no fallen angels; the devil is made from an evil spirit called jinn.

They are not human, but can take human form to communicate if necessary. They are all typically male. They are also servants to Allah, and therefore have no free will. They also give a baby a soul when they are in the womb (ensoulment).

Reasons angels are important-

  • They demonstrate allah's compassion and his love by being there to guide us
  • They revealed the Qur'an, a sacred book
  • They give souls to people (ensoulment)
  • They are one of the six articles of faith for the Sunni Muslims- an obligatory belief
  • A reminder of the afterlife and what is to come for a 'good' muslim.

There are named 7 archangels in the Qur'an.

Jibril (Gabriel)- The angel of revelation. This angel revealed to Mary that she was pregnant with the prophet Isa. He also revealed the Qur'an to Muhammed (pbuh).

Mikail (Michael)- He asks Allah to forgive peoples sins, except for shirk which is unforgiveable.

Israfil- He blows the trumpet twice for The day of judgement. The first

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