IB Chemistry


Homologous series: same functional group (reactive part), same general formula, similar chemical properties, graduating physical properties

Structural formula: must show all bonds       C must always have 4 bonds   

To find out what type of hydrocarbon, count the longest chain of carbons. If the carbon is on the first carb on an alkane, it is the same isomer as when you draw all carbons in a straight line.

Class name and functional group are not the same thing

(E.G) -OH = class name= alcohol        functional group= hydroxyl

BENZENE: C6H6, alternating single/ double bonds in hexagon shape.

Physical evidence: All C-C bonds are same length + only 3 isomers exist for C6H4Cl2 whereas if there were double bonds, four isomers would be predicted

Chemical evidence: when cyclohexene reacts with H, 120KJ / mol given out where benzene gives out less than 3 times as much energy. Also C=C undergo addition reactions but benzene undergoes subsitution reactions.

Including electrophilic subsitution: a hydrogen atom in the ring is replaced by another atom

ALKANES: undergo COMBUSTION (complete: CO2+H2O)(incomplete:CO/C + H2O)

Unreactive due to


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