How do we account for the restoration of the monarchy in 1660?

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Inevitable

There was powerful underlying popularity of the monarchy

·         Penruddocks (1655) ‘damp squid’ and Booths rising (called for free elections and return to traditional rule not necessarily the return of the monarchy) (1658) however they were small and unsuccessful, easily supressed by Lambert.

·         ‘Basilikae Doron’ collected sayings of Charles I was reprinted, martyred. Cult of Charles/Monarchy.

Drift back to monarchical style of government during the 1650s.

·         The establishment of the Protectorate in 1653, single head of state unlike the commonwealth.

·         Offer of the crown in the Humble Petition and advice in 1657.

·         Succession to Richard Cromwell.

However in 1658 on Oliver Cromwell’s death, there was widespread public support for Richard Cromwell’s Protectorate Clarendon: ‘the King’s condition never appeared so hopeless [or] so desperate’.  Addresses of congratulation flooded in.  Thus it can be concluded that the short term factors had more of an impact.

Monck

·         Harris: ‘The English were finally put out of their misery by General Monck’

·         Catalysed and oversaw the declaration of Breda. Gave Parliament power in the religious settlement and over land redistribution, thus pleasing parliament. Also satisfied the material concerns of the army: there was to be a general pardon for actions carried out under orders; arrears of pay were to be fully met; religious toleration for moderate sectarians was to be guaranteed. Thus was seen as a reasonable settlement for both the Army and Parliament.

·         Called for the dismissal of the Rump and reinstating the purged MP’s. Creating a more conservative and moderate parliament infiltrated with royalists, thus providing the perfect conditions for restoration. Decisive action to manipulate the system labelled a ‘major step towards restoration’

·         His support stemmed from desire to restore civilian authority; and therefore as a ‘man of the people’. Not seen as being self-interested: offered the crown but had…

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