The aims of first aid:
- First aider safety is a priority
- Preserve the life of the casualty
- Prevent further harm occurring to the casualty
- Promote or support the process of recovery
First aider responsibilities
1. assess the situation quickly
2. protect themselves
3. identify…injury/nature of illness
4. give each casualty early and appropriate treatment, e.g. who first
5. arrange to go to hospital, doctor or home
6. remain until further care is available
7. report observations
8. prevent cross infection
9. do not lift or move an immobile casualty unless the casualty is in danger of experiencing further harm
10. remain to reassure/comfort until help arrives
It is every first aider’s responsibility to act safely and within their skill level so that the casualty does not experience further harm or injury as a result of intervention.
Casualty management – 4 steps
1. Are there bystanders there that could help?
2. Is there a first aid kit available
3. Is specialist help needed e.g. an ambulance?
4. Is anyone in a life threatening condition?
Basic first aid and the functions of the body
DANGER: check the area for dangers to both yourself and the victim
RESPONSE: call to the victim from a safe distance to see if conscious, and then approach carefully always checking for unforeseen dangers. Touch the victim on the shoulder and shake slightly always talking to them looking for a response (making sure you have checked for anything dangerous such as electric cable caught underneath)
AIRWAY: check to see if the airway is clear. If not remove any obstructions that can be indentified.
BREATHING: to see if the victim is breathing, hold a mirror to the nose or the mouth area (if you have one) or place your check in the same area to feel any breath that may be there.
CIRCULATION: try to locate a pulse. There are various points where the pulse can be found.
If the victim is in a safe place, is breathing and has a pulse, check body for any other injuries such as fractures, dislocations, cuts etc. if they have a suspected injury leave them as they are but continue to monitor the vital signs. If no injuries put into recovery position. Then send for, call for, or go yourself for help – call ambulance!
If the victim is not breathing and has no pulse send for help and start CPR
If you are on your own you must get help first then start CPR. This will be hard work but you must keep it going until help arrives.
If you have others with you send …