Collection of notes from lessons and Marcello Giovanni (the head AQA examiner)
What is a text?
· An act of communication
· Produced and received in specific times/places
· Produced and received by real people – with beliefs and intentions who use language to express and understand ideas and meanings; who are influenced, shaped and negotiated by the situations they appear in.
Where, why, who, genre/type, production, reception.
FOREGROUND the context.
· What does the context tell you?
· Use context to draw relevant ideas on language study – issues, ideas, language tech, lexis, semantics, pragmatics, structure, politeness strategies, discourse conventions, ways ideas are expressed, power balances etc
· Use context to draw on ideas about language – interpretations on linguistic methods (lexis, grammar, phonology, graphology, register, genre etc) select what is relevant
· Create chains of groups and subgroups and constantly compare
· Identify groups (similarities/differences) and create potential subgroups
· Foreground to your hearts content – by positioning words/ideas/themes to make them stand out or show a significance
AO2 – Issues and concepts
· Where does the data exist?
· Who is the producer?
· Who is the implied/actual receiver?
· Where is the text read?
· What is the purpose?
· What influence do contextual factors have?
· Language analysis
· Explicit and accurate use of terminology
Language and Power
Idk , I personally wouldn’t recommend spending a decade learning names so just focus on what you’ll actually gain marks for and you’ll be cracking on the day.
Brown and Levinson
· Face is the public self-image that everyone tries to project
· Positive face-to feel valued& appreciated
· Negative face- not to be imposed upon, or threatened
· A face threatening act-a communicative act that threatens someone’s positive or negative face
· Classified power as political, personal or social
· Could be classified as
1) INSTRUMENTAL- Power to make something happen
2) INFLUENTIAL- power used to influence or persuade
· Texts have the power to position the reader into an ideological view
· They create an ideal reader
· Not easily for readers to adopt an alternative view- interpellation
· MESSAGE OF A TEXT- meaning at surface level
· CODE OF A TEXT-meaning at a pragmatic,hidden level
· Difficult or target audience to resist the code of the text, ideologically conditioned
· Synthetic personalisation
-Treating the mass audience as an individual
-Use of 2nd person pronoun direct address ‘you’
Types of Power
· POLITICAL- Decisions,rules,law
· INDIVIDUAL- Persons position within an organisation
· ECONOMIC- level of wealth
· KNOWLEDE- based upon knowledge
· PERSONALITY- charisma,popularity