AS AQA English Language Revision

- groupings

- gender

- power

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  • Created by: Zara
  • Created on: 13-01-12 20:36
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Language and Power
Types of power: (Wareing)
1. Instrumental ­ Used by individuals or groups to maintain and enforce authority
2. Authority
3. Expertise/Knowledge
4. Personal ­ occupation or role, e.g. teachers, managers, employers
5. Hierarchical/status
6. Ideological
7. Influential ­ Used to influence and persuade others
8. Political ­ politicians, the police and workers in the law courts
9. Social Group ­ Class, Age and Gender
10. Power in Discourse (Fairclough) ­ Ways in which power is manifested in situations through language
11. Power Behind Discourse ­ Fairclough ­ Focus on the social and ideological reasons behind the
enactment of power
Sinclair & Coulthard's IRF
Initiation, Response & Feedback (Adjacency triplets)
Grice's maxims
1. Maxim of relevance - be relevant
2. Maxim of quality - be truthful
3. Maxim of quantity - don't say too much, too little
4. Maxim of manner - be clear
Flout - reader understands
Violate - reader doesn't understand
Implicature - implied meaning created
Brown & Levinson FTA
(Face threatening acts)
Face is the public self-image that every adult tries to project.
Positive face two ways: as "the want of every member that his wants be desirable to at least some others",
or alternately, "the positive consistent self-image or 'personality' (crucially including the desire that this
self-image be appreciated and approved of) claimed by interactants".
Positive face = desires to be liked, admired, ratified, and related to positively, noting that one would threaten
positive face by ignoring someone
Negative face was defined as "the want of every 'competent adult member' that his actions be unimpeded
by others", or "the basic claim to territories, personal preserves, rights to non-distraction--i.e. the freedom of
action and freedom from imposition".
Negative face = the desire not to be imposed upon, noting that negative face could be impinged upon by
imposing on someone.
Positive Face refers to one's self-esteem, while negative face refers to one's freedom to act.

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Synthetic personalisation - process of addressing mass audiences as though they were individuals
through inclusive language usage
Power in discourse - power is manifested in situations through language
Power behind discourse - backed by an institution, social or ideological reasons
Lakoff's Politeness Principles
Lakoff believed that a co-operative conversation required:
not imposing
giving options
Making the receiver feel good.
Candace West
Doctor's Talk - female doctors use more mitigated directives.…read more

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Doctor's power/diagnostic interview
History-taking, physical examination, diagnosis, management/treatment
Schema ­ mental model
Candace West found that female doctors use more mitigated directives, males use more
aggravated directives
Legal language
Fossilised forms, Precise, coherent, unambiguous, Repetition of meaning, vague terms,
Precise/unchangeable words, Modal verbs, Lack punctuations
Language and Gender
Tannen: Difference theory
Difference theory: Men and Women just talk differently
Explores 6 contrasts:
Status vs. Support
Independence vs. Intimacy
Advice vs. Understanding
Information vs. Feeling
Order vs. Proposal
Conflict vs. Compromise
Status vs.…read more

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Men: order "We'll go to the red lion"
Conflict vs. Compromise
Women: "In trying to prevent a fight some women refuse to oppose the will of others openly" But sometimes it is far
more effective for a woman assert herself, even at the risk of conflict.…read more

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Even silence in conversation can have functions
Refusal to participate can be a control strategy
Could be an expression of disempowerment
Researchers have investigated men and women's use of spoken language in casual conversations
Discovered evidence that men interrupt women even when women are of higher status
They hold the floor longer
Take longer turns
Tend to reject women's topic choice
Use imperatives as directives
Use stronger swear words
Higher proportion of slang and colloquial lexis
Use more hypotaxis (embedded…read more

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Izzy Bradshaw

This is a really useful resource. Thank you!


This is really good!!!!

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