Language & Technology - A Level Revision Book

This booklet covers the section B module of Categorising Texts in ENGB1. The more 'technical' side involves many more terms than it's counterparts. This booklet provides information for all levels for those who want C's or those that aim for A*'s. What you do with this booklet, is up to you!

Hope this helps - Mikey

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Revision Summary
The world of technology is always changing but so is the
language that technology brings with it. If your thinking
of writing about this section in the exam it is recommended that you know a
few basics about recent technology. Since with this topic, there are so many
different ways of communicating with technology that the examiners could
choose one you may never have heard of, so it's good to be aware.
The trick in this section is knowing the features of the mode of
communication!
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Technology in History
Never know really, this sort of context can get you some higher level marks if
used appropriately. But obviously don't waste time if you don't have enough of
it!
Egyptians use hieroglyphics
Papyrus and Parchment are used at 200 BC
The first books were known as scrolls at were 30 metres in length
Gutenberg's Printing Press 1452 ­ Thanks to the printing press,
manuscripts didn't have to be used and there were 2 big changes in the
West:
o First, it is an agent of mass literacy - by providing appropriate
and affordable texts in large numbers it encouraged and
supported ordinary people in learning to read.
o Second, it is an agent of standardization. Following the
publication of Dr. Johnson's dictionary in 1755, and also
prescriptive books on grammar, such as Robert Lowth's (1762),
publishers came to use house styles, which more or less
established certain written forms as a standard
Yet even in the 18th Century there is no standard spelling yet such as the
distinguished `ise' vs `ize'
In order to communicate with people from a far distance early 20th
century methods were to use flags
However with afterwards the use of carrier pigeons, letters on
horseback and finally Morse code became the most efficient method of
communication, arguably technology was boosted by the wars.

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Radio Language
All we here is radio ga ga. But all rocking aside, this is a simple enough topic
to grasp as are all the contexts, you've just got to learn and spot the features.
Radio is a one-to-many type of interaction where it seems that the radio
presenter is having a monologic conversation, however over time this has
altered with the introduction of specific radio programmes from the BBC, such
as Radio 1, 2 and 3 etc.…read more

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Discourse In live phone-ins the discourse is structured as the presenter
asks a question and the caller answers then the expert
comments upon the answer given
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TV Language
This is short because there are no real linguistic features here, as mentioned
earlier though, most of the time TV is compared with Radio.…read more

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When analysing a transcript from a telephone call make sure to look out for
different features in each linguistic category:
Lexis Jargon used in association with topic of conversation; the
register; is the call demanding something? Any sociolects or
idiolects? Metatalk (talking about the act of talking itself!)
Grammar Adjacency pairs that are used; Use of interrogatives and
declaratives to stimulate a response; Levinson's (1983)
Reformulation to explain/ clarify a declarative/interrogative.
Sort of a self-repair act.…read more

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Anaphoric references: This is when an expression refers to another. Similar to
deixis.
Exophoric ­ Refers to something that is outside the text.
Endophoric ­ A reference made within the text previously
Anaphoric - Refers to something in the text that has previously been
identified, mostly the meaning of the word `it'.
Cataphoric ­ The reverse on anaphoric. `It' has not yet been identified
for example.
Feedback: Using fillers such as `yeah' and `uh huh' to show cooperation and
understanding.…read more

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A designer will most likely set out to be aesthetically pleasing
and make accessibility easy for the user.
Pragmatics Firstly consider the fact that there are laws to be considered
such as the Data Protection Act (1998) which means that
information, for example has to be up to date. Most of the
requirements coincide with Grice's Maxims such as Relevance
and Quality.…read more

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In text messages look for:
Lexis/Orthogra Predictive text makes the text into standard English. Saves
phy time. Linguistic features and forms.
Grammar Use of multiple interrogatives? Adjacency pairs ­ where
lots of questions are sent and the following answers are
received. Standard English used in predictive texts.
Declaratives, Imperatives, Exclamatives. Simple, compound
or complex relating to what the purpose of the text is.
Discourse Is there a need for self identification? Register depends on
context.…read more

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Homophonic single Phonetically transcribed C (see), u (you), ur (you
grapheme sounds to shorten the are)
abbreviation language
Homophone Use of single letters and 2L8 (too late)
representation numbers based on similarity
in sound
Numeric characters Number used to replace 4 (for), 2 (to), b4 (before)
sound in word
Aphesis/Abbreviatio Aphesis affects beginning of Lo (hello), sec (second),
n word info (information)
Abbreviation affects end
Phonetic Spelling - Iluvu (I love you), cos
(because)
Variant spelling Deliberate non standard Wot (what), wen (when)
spelling for…read more

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Sexual Orientation Explicit sexual overtones [Use your imagination]…read more

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