Energy Security

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Energy Security

Renewable Energy - energy from a source that is not depleted when used, e.g. wind, solar power, tidal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, biomass

Non-Renewable Energy - energy existing in finite quantity and not able to be replenished, e.g. coal, oil, gas

Environmental Costs

  • Non-renewable
    • Coal
      • greenhouse gasses
      • opencast mining (scars the landscape)
      • enhanced greenhouse effect
      • visually ugly
      • acid rain
    • Oil
      • leakages
      • acid rain
      • greenhouse gasses
      • enhanced greenhouse effect
    • Natural gas
      • greenhouse effect
      • enhanced greenhouse effect
    • Nuclear
      • water taken from rivers and lakes to cool
      • releasing water back at a different temperature and disturb natural ecosystem
      • radiation leak to the environment e.g. Great Tohoku Earthquake 2001 in Japan. Fukushima plant meltdown or Chernobyl nuclear
      • nuclear waste
  • Renewable
    • Solar
      • Large amount of land for solar farms
      • use toxic materials to make the PV cells
      • To make them they produce greenhouse gasses
    • Wind
      • Produce noises - could upset animals e.g. cows - they produce less milk
      • Flocks of birds killed from the blades
      • Large amount of land used
      • Visual pollution
    • Tidal/Wave
      • barrier stops marine animals moving (River Seven)
      • possible noise pollution

Energy Demand

Energy Demand - the need or desire for energy

Energy consumption - the availability and use of energy

In many places demand for energy is fully met, therefore demand is matched by consumption
However, demand can exceed availability

  • Energy is used for a wide variety of purposes:
    • Generating electricity
    • Providing entertainment
    • Propelling transport
    • Lighting and heating homes/business
    • Powering industry
  • The Future
    • Global geographical variations in energy demand increases
    • China and India see the greatest rises
    • Europe possibly experiences falls in demand due to improved efficiency
    • Consumption in the Developing world doubles
    • Increase of ⅓ in the Developing world
    • Energy consumption in ‘2 worlds’ becomes approximately equal

Types of Energy

Coal

  • Non-renewable
  • It is a combustible, sedimentary rock formed of converted residual plant matter and solidified below overlying rock strata
  • Coal releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants
  • Coal is easy to burn
  • Coal is inexpensive compared to other finite resources
  • Coal mining ruins landscape
  • Power stages are large and ugly
  • Coal is easily transportable
  • Fairly reliable energy source
  • Coal mines are found in the USA, China, Australia and India

Natural Gas

  • Non-renewable
  • A methane-rich gas found underground. It can contain water vapour, sulphur compounds and other non-hydrogen gasses such as carbon dioxide.
  • Natural gas is less harmful than coal and gas
  • Doesn’t leave any residue
  • Natural gas can be piped into houses for heating and cooking purposes
  • Has a good yield for energy
  • Can have gas leaks which can cause environmental issues
  • Releases greenhouse gases when burnt
  • Most of Europe receive gas from Russia. It is a long distance so they put pipes and also they have political issues so could turn off the supply
  • Examples are North Sea and Russia

Nuclear Fission

  • Non-renewable (could be recyclable)
  • The division of a heavy nucleus into two parts, usually accompanied by the emission of neutrons (neutrally charged particles inside the nucleus), gamma radiation (high-energy radiation) and energy release. This

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