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Dukkha- suffering 

  • Also first noble truth
  • 'all is ill' / unsatisfactoriness / suffering 

Dukkha is a fundamental teaching of the buddha..

He taught all life is dukkha. The literal translation is unsatisfactoriness because nothing ever stays the same. It is the diagnosis that the buddha gave. 

The buddha experienced dukkha within his own life and he taught from experience:

  • came across 4 men- old, sick, corpse and holy man 
  • he had to leave wife and child
  • lived on only grain of rice a day
  • Sat under bodhi tree where he was tempted- 40 days and 40 nights 

3 main key types of dukkha: 

Dukkha-dukha- This is suffering in its straightforward form. It consists of pain


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