THE THREE MARKS OF EXISTENCE
- Dukkha means unsatisfactoriness or suffering and is an inescapable aspect of life.
- Dukkha comes from du (bad or ill thing) and cakka (wheel) referring to a badly fitted chariot wheel.
- Translates to "that which is difficult to endure"
- Idea of dukkha comes fromn the buddhas experience of the four sights
- It is a characteristic of "being" i.e. existence (along with anicca and anatta)
- It is the first of the 4 noble truths and act as the diagnosis to the human condition
- "life is characterised by suffering" - Buddha
- Story of Kisogotami
- 3 mental poisons cause Dukkha
Buddha distinguished between 7 different types of dukkha, these included:
- ordinary suffering
- it could be physical pain or mental distress
- examples include birth, old age, sickness, death (life is characterised by suffering)
- this is suffering which is produced when the things we enjoy come to an end/change (see anicca)
- attatchment to the conditioned states leads to dukkha (see anatta)
Patticchanna Dukkha - concealed suffering
- suffering which is not openly evident, only known to sufferer.
Apaticchanna Dukkha - exposed suffering
- suffering which is quite apparent
- Suffering which is produced by change
- "everything is impermanent" - Gethin
- Nothing lasts forever, everything is changing
- Buddists may use a mandala to illustrate anicca (elaborate)
- Buddha believed peoples craving (tanha…