• First Mark of Existence and Noble Truth
  • Suffering- 'that which is hard to endure'
  • Basic 'unsatisfactoriness' in life (Cush)
  • Sense of unease (Gethin)
  • It is an inescapable aspect of life, such as old age, disease and death
  • It has both physical and psychological elements
  • Comes from the words 'du' bad or ill thing and 'cakka' a wheel which refers to an ill fitting chariot wheel that will slow down your life and make your journey uncomfortable
  • Comes from Buddha's experience of the Four Sights (an old man, a sick man, a dead man and a holy man)
  • It is a characteristic of being ie existence, along with anicca and anatta
  • There are 7 types of suffering but 3 main types
    • Ordinary suffering (dukkha dukkha)
    • Suffering produced by change (viparinama dukkha)
    • Suffering as conditioned states (samkhara dukkha)
    • Concealed suffering (paticchana dukkha)
    • Exposed suffering (Apaticchana dukkha)
    • Body and name suffering


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