Cross-Cultural Variations


Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) analysed 32 studies of attachment in 8 countries involving 2,000 babies (meta-analysis).

Each of the studies they looked at using the strange situation attempted to classify attachment types/relationships,


  • Secure attachment was the most common type.

Country                Secure                 Insecure-avoidant                  Insecure-resistant

GB                          75%                           22%                                          3%

Germany                 57%                           35%                                         8%

Japan                      68%                             5%                                         27%

There was a 1.5 times greater variation


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