Attachment - Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

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  • Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg
    • Carried out a meta analysis in which they analysed results of 32 separate studies in 8 different countries. Used Ainsworth's strange situations.
    • Secure attachments were most common in all cultures surveyed. Lowest proportion was found in China (50%) and the highest was found in Great Britain and Sweden (75%).
    • Insecure avoidant were most common in West Germany. Were very rare in Israel and Japan.
    • Insecure ambivalent attachments were most common in Israel, China and Japan. Lowest in Scandinavian countries, e.g. Sweden.
    • Found differences within cultures. The 3 studies in Germany had very different findings. One study in Japan had no Type A attachments and another had 20%. Overall, intra-cultural variations were nearly 1.5 times the cross-cultural variations.
    • Methodological Issues
      • A substantial meta analysis considering the attachment behaviours of a large number of infants. A large sample is needed to generalise results to the rest of the population,
      • Over half the studies were carried out in the US. 27 were carried out in individualistic cultures and only 5 in collectivist cultures. Sample may not be truly representative.
      • Strange Situation method was developed in America so may be most suited to studying attachment in this type of culture.
        • Goldberg: we can only make valid interpretations of the Strange Situations in cross-cultural studies if we understand the child rearing practices in that culture.
    • Ethical Issues
      • Meta analysis - involves bringing together results of studies which have used similar methods. There are no direct ethical issues as data analysis and collection is secondary.

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