cross cultural research (attachment),


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Cross cultural research into attachment types
Discuss crosscultural research into attachment types:
Outline Evaluation
The key study in this area is that of Van The findings of the Van Ijzedorn and
Ijzedorn and Kroonenberg. Kroonenberg study can be criticised in two
This is a metaanalysis of 32 Strange
Situation studies from eight countries. Firstly, its findings depend on the soundness
of the Strange Situation procedure and this
The key findings were that the percentages has been criticised for, for example, its lack
of secure attachment broadly similar from of ecological validity and vulnerable to
country to country ­ 50 to 70%. demand characteristics as the career may try
to give the best possible impression of their
The variation of percentages of secure and caring skills. If the Strange Situation is not
insecure attachment was on average 1.5 reliable or valid enough then neither will
times greater within a single culture than the crosscultural conclusions drawn from it.
variation of percentages between different
cultures Also, it suggested that variations in insecure
attachment in, for example, Japan and
The metaanalysis suggests several things Germany are due to problems with the
about crosscultural attachment. Secure Strange Situation. German parents like their
attachment is the most common form of infants to be independent and so are less
attachment bond in every country. likely to pick them up when they are crying.
Most countries produce a higher rate of So attachment may appear to be less secure
insecureavoidant attachment compared to and more avoidant than other countries, but it
insecureresistant attachment. Variations in is argued that this is because the Strange
countries are greater than variations between Situation misunderstands German parenting.
countries. So the Strange Situation is ethnocentric to
Of particular interest is the low percentage of
resistant attachment compared to avoidant These criticisms suggests that the study is not
attachment in Germany, and the reverse in, a good basis for making generalised
for example, Japan where resistant conclusion about insecure attachment across
attachment is much more common than culture and this is supported by the fact that
avoidant attachment. Germany also had a variation in a culture is found to be greater
lower rate of secure attachment than most than between cultures. However, the similar
other countries. Taken at face value, this rates of secure attachment does provide
suggests that there are important difference evidence that this is the norm for human
in attachment styles between cultures. beings whatever their culture and so is innate
rather than cultural.


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