- Jean Piaget: Biologist who studies moral development of children
- Children go through a series of mental stages. As the brain develops so does the ability to reason morally (conscience)
- Heteronomous morality (5-10yrs) immature conscience - the consequences of an action will show if it is right or wrong - will be punished or praised
- Autonomous morality (10+yrs) less dependent on others for moral authority - develop own rules etc.
- Fromm: Authoritatian conscience - similar to super ego (external authority e.g. parents, teachers, church etc. internalised) and both can stem from things like upbringing and religion.
- Authoritarian conscience must be obeyed because it is authority. Obedience is primary virtue.
- Fromm lived through the Nazi government who manipulated people into harming jews <- they are obeying Authoritarian conscience.
- Listening to it can cause someone to bypass normal moral sense - explains why people do bad things…