C2.1 Structure and bonding

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C2.1.1 Chemical Bonding

A compound contains two or more elements which are chemically combined.

Atoms create ions so they are stable and have a full outer shell of electrons. They do this by:

  • covalent bonding - sharing electrons.
  • ionic bonding - transferring electrons.

Ionic bonding involves the atoms loosing or gaining electrons to achieve a full outer shell.

If they lose an electron, they have a positive charge. If they gain an electron, they have a negative charge - this is because the number of protons does not change.

When non-metals react with metals, the non-metal atoms gain electrons.

Metal atoms need to lose electrons, so they react with non-metals, which need to gain electrons.

They both form stable electronic structures by sharing electrons.

This is covalent bonding.

We can show this with dot and cross diagrams.

C2.1.2 Ionic Bonding

Ions are held together in very tight bonds due to strong forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.

The electrostatic force of attraction is called ionic bonding (transferring).

Ionic bonds result it giant structures (or giant lattice).

Giants lattices are so strong because the force acts equally in all

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