What three things are all atoms made of?
Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
What type of charge do neutrons have?
Neutrons have no electrical charge; they are neutral.
What relationship is there between the charges of protons and electrons?
Protons and electrons have equal and opposite charges (Protons = Positively Charged, Electrons = Negatively Charged)
How are elements in the periodic table arranged?
By their atomic number.
What is the 'atomic number'?
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
How are electrons in atoms arranged?
In shells or energy levels.
What do elements in the same group have in common?
They all have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
What are the elements with atoms that a full outer shell called, and what properties to they have because of this?
They are called the Noble Gases - Helium, Argon and Neon are examples.
They are all very stable and unreactive.
How many electrons are in a first shell of an atom?
How many electrons are there in a full outer shell of an atom if it has more than one shell?
How would we write the electronic structure/configuration of an atom with an atomic number of 13?
What is the difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
Covalent Bonding = Sharing of electrons
Ionic Bonding = Transfer of electrons
What is an ion, and why does an atom become one (in regards to ionic bonding)?
An ion is a charged atom. This happens when an atom gains a full or loses an outer shell, and therefore there are more or less protons in the nucleus than there are electrons surrounding the atom.
When an atom loses an electron, what type of charge does it end up with?
Positive, because electrons are negatively charged.
What are the bonds between ions called, are they strong or weak and why?
Bonds between ions are called ionic bonds, and are very strong because of the positive and negative charges attracting each other equally in all directions.
Does ionic bonding normally happen between metals, non - metals, or a non-metal and a metal?
Ionic Bonding normally happens when a reaction occurs between a metal and a non-metal.
What normally reacts to result in covalent bonding?
Normally non-metals that react with each other to share molecules and therefore become covalently bonded.
What is the difference between simple and giant covalent structures?
In simple covalent structures, molecules are made from the few atoms that are covalently bonded.
In giant covalent structures, a huge number of atoms are held together by a network of covalent bonds.
Do metals have a giant or simple structure?
Metals have giant structures (metals are a giant lattices of metal ions arranged in regular layers)
What is it that holds the metal atoms together?
The outer electrons in metals move from one atom to the next making the metal atoms into positively charged ions. These delocalised or "free" electrons are attracted to the positive ions and this electrostatic attraction holds the metal ions together.
What do we call the crystals in metals and why do they exist?
They are called grains and exist because the structure is not necessarily the same throughout the metal.
What are the places where the grains join called?
What is it called when steel is coated zinc, and why is it done?
It is called galvanising and happens to stop it rusting as zinc is a rust-resistant metal.