C2- structure & bonding

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  • C2.1
    • Chemical bonding
      • 2 or more elements= compound
        • join by sharing or transferring electrons
          • sharing= covalent bonding
          • transfer= ionic
            • non metals& metals
      • groups show how many electrons in outer most shell
    • Ionic Bonding
      • oppositely charged ions- giant structure
        • very regular
        • strong electrostatic forces
        • held firmly in place
      • ratio of ions
        • depends on the charges
        • e.g. Ca+2 & Cl- in 2:1
      • use dot&cross diagrams to show this
    • Formulae of ionic compounds
      • neutral- as you balance charges
      • charge on ions shows groups
      • ions can be made up of more than one type of element such as OH-
    • covalent bonding
      • non-metals- share electrons
        • held together by covalent bonds are called molecules
      • group tells you how many bonds it can make
      • atoms which can form several bonds = giant covalent structures
    • Metals
      • atoms all same size
      • giant structure
        • layers of atoms
      • delocalise electrons
        • produce lattice
        • attract ions and holds structure together


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