Given the effects model and the Uses and Gratifications have their problems and limitations a different approach to audiences was developed by the academic STUART HALL at BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY in the 1970's
This considered how texts were ENCODED with meaning by producers and then DECODED (understood) by audiences.
This theory suggests that :-
When a PRODUCER constructs a text it is ENCODED with a MEANING or MESSAGE that the producer wishes to convey to the audience.
In some instances audiences will correctly DECODE the MESSAGE or…