Non-experimental methods... types of research in which variables are not deliberately manipulated by the researcher.
1. CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS - correlation refers to a statistical technique that measures the relationship between two variables, i.e. the extent to which high valures on one variable are associated with high values on another (positive correlation), or the extent to which high values on one variable are associated with low values on another (negative correlation).
Correlational research (analysis) is used to investigate the extent of relationship between variables that are thought likely to co-vary.
- Correlational techniques provide a precise quantitative measure of the strength of the relationship between specific variables.
- Useful when trying to unravel complex relationships and are a powerful tool for exploratory research.
- Not possible to establish cause and effect through research investigations using correlational analysis, only message the degree of interrelationship between different variables.
- non-linear relationships can't be measured by commonly used correlational techniques.
2. OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES - behaviour is observed and recorded and there is usually no deliberate manipulation of variables. Provides an alternative to tightly controlled research methods, such as the lab experiment.
The emphasis is placed on how people/animals behave in specific situations, no attempt is made to influence the behaviour being investigated.
- observation may help to prevent time being wasted in carrying out unrealistic experiments. Useful technique for studying unknown or little-known behaviours.
- Naturalistic observation can provide a useful means of checking whether experimental finding apply outside laboratory conditions.
3. SELF-REPORT TECHNIQUES - Self-report techniques enable those participating in a study to provide information knowingly about specific things relating to themselves, as opposed to the researcher observing these things directly.
QUESTIONNAIRES - Questionnaire surveys can be used in a wide…