determinism- that every event has a cause. no free will
- laws of nature, which determines events
- freedom of choice is an illusion
- personal responsibility is meaningless
- blame and punishment are also meaningless
EG. Clarence Darrow, a lawyer defended 2 boys of killing, as they were a product of their upbringing (Rich, got everything they wanted, so thought it was acceptable to do what they wanted) and argued it was not their responsibility.
hard determinism- all actions have prior causes. no free will. cannot be held morally responsible.
John Hospers, a modern hard determinist: someting externally and internally compels us to perfrom an action we think is free will
Calvin: the elected =heaven, the damned =hell (cannot earn place in heaven of sacrifice your place, it is determined you will go to the selected place) emphasises you cannot influence your furture.
WEAKNESS OF HARD DETERMINISM:
- "God ordaines eternal life for some and eternal damnation for others" (romans 28-30- st.paul discusses predestination) - why did god give us 'free will' if he had already decided where we were going.
- If God was all loving (omnibenevolent) why did he create bad/hell?
- It takes away people's autonomy to make own decisions.
- we cannot blame or praise people for their actions
- pessimistic view,EG natural disaesters, why would god want that?
STRENGTHS FOR HARD DETERMINISM:
- Some biblical support and well respected thinkers develop the theory
- It upholds Gods omnipotence (his control)
- God would have predestined a 'good' lifefor…