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What is meant by Free Will and Free Action?

Thomas Hobbs
· Freedom meant that there were no external constraints stopping you from making a
free choice
Hume
· Suggested the same thing and said that free will or Liberty is the power of action…

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Predestination

What is Predestination?

Predestination is a Christian doctrine which argues that your salvation is pre-
determined by God and there is nothing you can do about it, it was formulated by Augustine
and John Calvin.

Augustine
· God is omnipotent, omniscient and benevolent. God…

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Hard determinism

What is Hard Determinism?

There is no free will and no responsibility. Their position is very strict, it does not
change. All actions have a prior cause, meaning we are neither free nor responsible.
A person cannot be blamed for their negative actions,…

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However, he chose to stay in the room, and chose not to check the door, so he must
have made a free choice.


What is psychological behaviourism, in accordance to Hard
Determinism?

First discussed by John Watson, it is the idea that peoples' behaviour can…

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What is scientific determinism, in accordance to Hard Determinism?

Science is mechanistic as it is based upon the theory of UNIVERSAL CAUSATION.
Science tells us that for every physical event there is a physical cause, and this causal chain
can be traced back to the…

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Libertarianism

What is meant by Libertarianism?

This states that we are both totally free and totally responsible. They argue that
ideas of cause and effect cannot be applied to human beings as we possess the freedom to
act.
Our decisions are a result of the…

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choose only that you choose freely. Everything depends on the individual, this is what gives
life meaning and purpose. `To be free is to be condemned to be free'- to be free is to have a
humanly fulfilling life. To avoid freedom makes life meaningless…

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Soft Determinism

What is Soft Determinism?

Argues that YES our actions are determined, but this does not diminish our
responsibility. Firstly it argues that determinism has become confused with fatalism.
Freedom of choice is not compatible with fatalism, but is compatible with determinism.
Soft determinism…

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1. How many causes can actually be said to originate with human beings? Surely most
causes leading up to a particular effect can be traced back to factors outside their
control.
2. Ultimate causes are always outside of humans control
3. Libertarians criticise soft determinists…

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