What were trenches like in 1914?
Sand bags were put near to the edge of openings to protect.
Barbed wire was placed for defence from raids.
Between opposing trenches there was no man's land, it was plain land which was battle ridden.
1. New inventions that made life harder from people and horse were barbed wire, machine guns, and high explosives.
2. Original tank metal boxes that run on caterpillar tracks.
3. During the Sommes tanks’ weaknesses were that they broke down easily and got bogged down in the mud.
4. During the Battle of Cambrai, they proved more successful.
Deadlock – situation in which no progress can be made.
Reconnaissance – observation to find out information about the enemy.
· Weapons of defence before weapons of attack in the First World War, and this led to a deadlock in the fighting.
· Various means were tried to break the deadlock: tanks, gas, an attack on Turkey (Germany’s ally), and aeroplanes.
Path to WWII
· Germany invades Poland – GB declares war
· Britain agrees to come to Poland’s aid if invaded
· Night of Broken Glass – Jewish shops attacked by Nazis, Jews killed.
· Munich agreement – Chaberlain’s signing over of Sudetenland
· Anschluss – annexation of Austria
· Hitler tries to use Olympics to show Arian superiority – Jesse Wens humiliates Hitler
· German Race Law passed in Nuremburg – anti-Jewish
· Germany begins rearmament
· Night of the Long Knives – ** kill Stormtrooper leader and other rivals to Hitler
· Nazi election – Enabling Act – Hitler becomes Dictator
Feb 27th 1934
· Reichstag falls – 10,000 Communists arrested
Jan 30th 1933
· Hitler becomes Chancellor
Food in the Trenches
20 ounces of bread
1/10 gill lime if vegetables not issued
16 ounces of flour instead of above
½ gill of rum
3 ounces of cheese
maximum of 20 ounces of tobacco
5/8 ounces of tea
1/3 chocolate – optional
4 ounces of jam
4 ounces of oatmeal instead of bread
½ ounce of salt
1 pint of porter instead of rum
1/36 ounce of pepper
4 ounces of dried fruit instead of jam
1/20 ounce of mustard
4 ounces of butter/margarine
8 ounces of fresh vegetables or
2 ounces of dried vegetables