The Origins of the First Gulf War

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  • Origins of the First Gulf War
    • 2nd August 1990 - Iraq invades Kuwait
      • Iraq and Kuwait were ruled by UK for half a century
        • UK left Kuwait 1961
          • Iraq claimed Kuwait
            • had to accept Kuwait's independence 1963
    • Iran-Iraq war
      • Saddam borrowed $80 billion
        • in great debt
          • owed Kuwait $14 billion
    • oil prices were low
      • plentiful
      • Iraq's economy suffered
      • Iraq lost $14 billion a year from 1985-1989
      • Iraq tried to take OPEC
        • to reduce oil production
          • to increase oil prices from iraq
            • OPEC refused
      • saddam blamed Kuwait and UAE for producing more oil then supposed to
        • Kuwait agreed to reduce oil production
      • accused Kuwait of slant drilling
      • Saddam involved the US ambassador
        • she said the USA wanted to keep out of Kuwait and Iraq's dispute
          • Saddam thought he could invade Kuwait
            • instead representatives from kuwait and Iraq met in Saudi Arabia to settle the dispute
              • Saddam demanded $10 billion
                • Kuwait only agreed to $9 billion
                  • 2nd August 1990 - Iraq invades kuwait
                    • 300k Iraqis against 16k kuwaitis
                    • Kuwait City was under Iraqi control by the end of the day
                      • another 2 days to defeat remaining Kuwaiti forces
                      • evacuating the rest to Saudi Arabia and bahrain
                      • saddam ran a puppet government
                        • then made Kuwait part of iraq
                      • people in Kuwait didn't want Iraqi rule
                        • 400k Kuwaitis and other nationals fled
                          • 112k Indians left in under 500 flights
                          • biggest civilian evacuation in history
                          • didn't allow any more to leave
                    • not part of gulf war
                    • great cause of gulf war
                    • condemned by all nations
                      • demanded saddam to remove troops
                        • denied
                          • UN's resolution was to place full sanctions on iraq
                            • blockade not allowing any trade with other countries
                              • saddam agreed
                                • demanded saddam to remove troops
                                  • denied
                                    • UN's resolution was to place full sanctions on iraq
                                      • blockade not allowing any trade with other countries
                                        • saddam agreed
                                          • as long as Israel withdrew from Palestine, Lebanon, Syria
                                            • Palestine supported saddam now
                                            • USA hated Iraq more
                                • as long as Israel withdrew from Palestine, Lebanon, Syria
                                  • Palestine supported saddam now
                                  • USA hated Iraq more
                    • tortured, arrested, and killed Kuwaitis in front of their families
                      • condemned by all nations
                      • affected world's economy
                        • Iraq now had access to most oil
                          • USA worried itll invade Saudi arabia
                            • Bush introduced Carter Doctrine
                              • Operation Desert shield
                                • prevent Iraq from invading Saudi arabia
                                  • USA gave Iraq an ultimatum
                                    • if they don't withdraw from Kuwait by January 1991, force will be used against them
                                      • 34 arab and western countries join to form coalition force
                            • will half more than half worlds oil

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