Urban Environments

  • Created by: RebekahW
  • Created on: 09-04-19 12:15

Push Factors

Too many people
Poverty
War
High levels of local diseases
Land use changes
Natural disasters
Lack of services

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Pull Factors

Earning money in informal sector
Better social provisions - ie, education
Employment
Better quality of life

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Megacities - causes of growth

Urban sprawl
Urbanisation
Natural increase
Push and pull factors
Industrialisation
Migration
Globalisation

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Megacities - positive consequences

2-3 times more GDP
Social and cultural hubs
Transport hubs
Employment
Healthcare
Services
Entertainment
Larger economy

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Megacities - issues

Social inequality and rich/poor divide
Natural restrictions and borders
Overcrowding
Lack of services
Increasing pollution levels

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Megacities - solutions and the future

Satellite cities - ie, Cairo
Brazil moved its capital city in 1960.
According to UN, 37 megacities by 2025.
By 2030, 41 megacities in the world.

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Suburbanisation and it’s history

The process of the population moving from central areas of cities towards suburbs on the outskirts or rural-urban fringe.

1) Between 1800-1900 rapid industrialisation took place and industry outbid all users of land near the CBD.
2) Industry needed larger labour force housed nearby.
3) Victorian houses were undesirable to upper classes, so they left CBD and moved to suburbs (1920s).
4) Decentralisation increased and left derelict sites, closed factories and unemployment in inner city.
5) Crime rates in inner city increased along with poor education and health.
6) As people moved, so did businesses, which increased the price of suburbs.
7) Road improvements and commuting became a way of life.
8) Families attracted - typically wealthy with both adults working in skilled jobs.

Examples - Jesmond, Heston, Gosforth, Fenway, Lowfell.

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Counter urbanisation and it’s causes

The process of people moving away from major urban areas into smaller rural areas or onto the rural-urban fringe.

Causes:
Larger houses and gardens
Increase in out of town retail
Inner city decline
Increase in wealth, so disposable income
Higher crime, pollution and noise in city
Change in family status
Improved traffic routes
Some jobs aren’t office based anymore - work from home.
Good education
Less building restrictions
Industry has moved.

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Counter urbanisation- impacts

Rural areas:
Conflict between people
Congestion and pollution
House prices increase as demand does
Older buildings demolished
Improved infrastructure
Farm buildings converted for housing.

On urban areas:
City decline
Business decline
Traffic congestion on major routes
Forces inner city regeneration

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Urban regeneration

Why necessary?
Inner city is derelict and population decline
Outward movement of people and businesses
Retail parks cause small businesses to close
Online shopping
Decaying due to being old area

Reurbanisation - The movement of people back into central areas after regeneration.
Gentrification - Process of renovating buildings. Private investors buy, improve, sell.
Re-development - process of destroying something to develop it.
Renovation - structure remains, but things change.
PPP - Public Private Partnership

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