Urban Environments Key terms

Megacity
A city or with a population of more than 10 million.
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Metacity
A conurbation with more than 20 million people.
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Urban growth
An increase in the number of urban dwellers. -The classification of urban dwellers depends on the census definitions of urban areas.
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Urbanisation
An increase in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns or cities.
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Urban sprawl
The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside.
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Counter-urbanisation
The movement of people from large urban areas into smaller urban areas or rural areas.
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Decentralisation
The movement of population and industry from the urban center to outlying areas.
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Deindustrialisation
This refers to the loss of jobs in the manufacturing sector, which occurred in the UK in the second half of the 20th century.
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Gentrification
This is the buying and renovating of properties, often in more run-down areas, by wealthier individuals.
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Suburbanisation
The movement of people from living in the inner parts of a city to living on the edges.
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Urban resurgence
This refers to the gentrification, both economic and structural, of an urban area that has suffered a period of decline.
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Edge city
A self-contained settlement which has emerged beyond the original city boundary and has developed as a city in its own right.
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Fortress landscapes
This term refers to landscaped designed around security, protection, surveillance and exclusion.
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World city
These are cities which have great influence on a global scale, because of their financial status and worldwide power.
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Cultural diversity
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society.
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Diaspora
A group of people with a similar heritage or homeland who have settled elsewhere in the world.
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Economic inequality
The difference between levels of living standards, income etc, across the whole economic distribution.
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Social segregation
When groups of people live apart from the rest of the population due to factors such as wealth, ethnicity, religion or age.
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Urban social exclusion
Economic and social problems faced by residents in areas of multiple deprivation
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Albedo
The reflectivity of a surface. It is the ratio between the incoming amount of insolation and the amount of energy reflected back to the atmosphere.
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Microclimate
The small scale variations in temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and evaporation that occur in a particular environment such as an urban area
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Particulate air pollution
A form of air pollution caused by the release of particles and noxious gases into the atmosphere
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Photochemical pollution
A form of air pollution that occurs mainly in cities and can be dangerous to health. Exhaust fumes become trapped by temperature inversions and, in the presence of sunlight, low-level ozone forms.
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Temperature inversion
An atmospheric condition in which temperature, usually increases with height. As inversions are extremely stable conditions and do not allow convection, they trap pollution in the lower layer of the atmosphere.
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Urban heat island
The zone around and above an urban area, which has higher temperatures than the surrounding rural areas.
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Channelling
Wind redirected down long-straight canyon lime streets where there is less friction.
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Venturi affect
The squeezing of wind into an increasingly narrow gap resulting in pressure decrease and velocity increase.
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Sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
This is a relatively new approach to manage rainfall by using natural processes in the landscape to reduce flooding, control flooding and provide amenity for the community.
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Brownfield site
Land that has previously been used for industrial purposes or some commercial uses
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Dereliction
The state of building that have been abandoned and become dilapidated
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Greenfield site
An area of undeveloped land
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Land remediation
The removal of pollutants or contaminants from the ground which allows areas of derelict former industrial land to be bought back into commerical use
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Ecological footprint
The total area of productive land and water required to produce the resources a population consumes and absorb the waste produced
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Liveability
The characteristics of for a city which improves the quality of life for people living there
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Sustainable city
A city which provides employment, a high standard of living, a clean healthy environment and fair governance for all its residents
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Sustainable development
Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs
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Urban resiliance
The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems within a city to survive, adapt and grow no matter what kinds of stresses and acute shocks they experience
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A conurbation with more than 20 million people.

Back

Metacity

Card 3

Front

An increase in the number of urban dwellers. -The classification of urban dwellers depends on the census definitions of urban areas.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An increase in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns or cities.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The spread of an urban area into the surrounding countryside.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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