- Created by: becky_99
- Created on: 09-12-19 01:12
Thomas, Nelson & Silverman, 2014:
Hypothesis - "hypothesis deduced from theory or induced from empirical studies that is based upon logical reasoning and predicts an outcome of the study".
Null hypothesis - "hypothesis used primarily in the statistical test for the reliability of the results that says that there are no differences/relationships among variables".
Independent variable - the thing that the researcher is manipulating, e.g. practice schedule.
Dependent variable - what the researcher is measuring, e.g. VO2 max.
Categorical variable - the things participants already possess, e.g. height.
Control variable - a factor that is deliberately kept out of the study, e.g. gender.
Extraneous variable - the things that may effect results, but kept in, e.g. age.
- Nominal scale - scale based on categories alone
- Ordinal scale - scale based on rankings
- Interval scale - scale which has equal units, but no meaningful zero
- Ratio scale - scale that has an equal distance between points, and zero represents an absence of that variable
Descriptive research provides data about the population being studied; cannot establish a cause-effect relationship between variables because there is no active manipulation of variables by the researcher.
It is also called observational because there is no intervention by the researcher.
Types of descriptive research
- Cross-sectional studies
- Longitudinal studies
- Surveys (3 sub-types - questionnaires, interviews, normative surveys)
Questionnaires: closed and open-ended questions.
- Investigates whether relationships among variables exist; their direction and strength
- Alternative to experiments when not ethical/feasible to conduct
- Useful to predict variables using simple techniques
Correlational vs. causation
Correlational is necessary but not sufficient condition for causation.
If no association between two variables, then no causation.
A significant correlational does not prove causation because there is no active manipulation of variables.
- Third variable problem
- Directionality problem