Recognising Research

what is research
a systematic means of problem solving
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what are the 5 characteristics of research
systematic (process), logical (induction/deduction), empirical, reductive (generalisation), replicable
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list the research process 1.
review available literature
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2.
formulate question
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3.
select appropriate design
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4.
collect relevant data
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5.
interpret findings
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6.
publish findings
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what are the qualities of reductionist/basic science
theoretical, invasive, specific, lab-based, lacks external validity, a focus on the mechanism
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give an example question of basic research
does caffeine inhibit glycogen phosphorylase
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what are the qualities of applied science
quick answers, less invasive, field-based, more externally valid, focus on effect
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give an example question of applied research
does caffeine improve athletics performance
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Research design continuum - what are the 3 design types
analytical, descriptive, experimental
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what are the analytical designs
reviews and meta-analyses, philosophical, historical,
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Analytical - Define: reviews
look at all previous work to give a critical account of present understanding
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meta-analyses
a quantitative method of review
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historical
using primary and secondary sources to document (using pre-existing and gathering new)
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philosophical
organising existing evidence into a theoretical model
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Descriptive - Define: case study
a detailed accrual of information from 1 individual or 1 group
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:surveys - cross-sectional
status of various groups at a point in time
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-longitudinal
status of one group at various points in time
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-correlational
relationships between variables e.g. does X change Y or does Z change X and Y
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pre-designs: one shot
treatment-observation
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pre-designs: group pre-test post-test
observation-treatment-observation
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pre-designs: static group comparison
treatment-observation and another group placebo-observation
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quasi-designs: time series
observation of 3 groups- treatment to all 3- observation of all 3
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quasi-designs: randomised group comparisons
random assignment- to treatment and placebo groups- observation of treatment and placebo groups
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true-designs: pre-test post-test randomised group comparisons
random assignment- to T and P groups- observations of each group- treatment of placebo- observations of each group
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true-designs: Solomon four group design
random assignment- to 4 T and P groups- observations of 2 of the groups- treatment or placebo to all 4- observations of all 4 groups........ this prevents the pre-test from having an affect
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Sampling Methods: random
all members of N population have an equal chance
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stage
randomly select a group (e.g. a school) then take a sample (e.g. a class)
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cluster
using natural groups like a community
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stratified
sampling proportionally to different strata e.g. 51 males and 49 females
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systematic
following a process e.g. every 4th person starting from a random point
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oppportunity
sample a convenient group
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general theory ---> specific observation
deductive
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what are the 5 characteristics of research

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systematic (process), logical (induction/deduction), empirical, reductive (generalisation), replicable

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list the research process 1.

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2.

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3.

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